Gajdówka or Gajdowskie, in German Gaidowko, a settlement in Swiecie county [powiat], in a wooded, sandy area, near the border of Tuchola county; 226 mórgs, with 7 buildings, 2 habitable structures, 15 Catholics. It is served by the parish church in Sliwice, the school in Zdroje, and the post office in Szklana Huta (German name Louisenthal).
Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1881, vol. 2, pg. 440]
This translation, by William F. Hoffman, first appeared in the Fall 1999 issue of "Bulletin of the Polish Genealogical Society of America".
This is a translation of excerpts from the article written by Bronislaw Gustawicz for the gazetteer Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego. Gustawicz, a teacher at St. Anne's Gimnazjum in Kraków, wrote this about 1880; so it should offer insights into the state of affairs in Galicia at roughly the time our ancestors were leaving it for America. Space limitations precluded printing the whole article much has been omitted. "Galicia, " the standard form in English, is used throughout; in the original the author used the form "Galicya, " and one also sees "Galicja " (common in Polish) and "Galizien " (the German version). The name comes from the Latinized form of Halicz, a town in Ukraine, in the I Ith-12th centuries capital of the Duchy of Halicz and a military center in the 14th-17th centuries.
I. Location, size, borders. Galicia, since 1772 a crownland [Translator's Note-a kraj koronny, a Polish rendering of the German term Kronland] joined with the Austro-Hungarian monarchy and formerly part of the Commonwealth, lies between 36°36'50" and 44°6'40" east longitude (per the Ferro meridian), and between 47'35'30" and 50'48'20" north latitude. [See note in the East Prussia entry regarding longitudes based on Ferro] ... The country is 531 km. long from west to east at latitude 49°40'. At its western border it is 91.03 km. wide, at the eastern border about 151.72 km., and in the center of the country 227.58 km. It is widest, 341.37 km., at longitude 42°35'.
To the west Galicia is bordered by Austrian and Prussian Silesia; to the north and northeast by Russia and, primarily, the Kingdom of Poland, Volhynia, and Podolia; to the southeast by Bukowina; to the south by Hungary... The country is most exposed from the north, toward the Kingdom of Poland, because for a distance of 531 km., from the mouth of the San to the sources of the Zbrucz, there is no barrier in the form of a river or significant elevation.
In these boundaries Galicia covers 1,364.06 square Austrian miles or 78,496.77 sq. km. [1 mila austryacka = about 7.6 km.]. It is the largest of all the monarchy's crownlands represented in the national council. [Omitted: Sections II "Formation," and III. "Hydrography. "]
IV. Climate. Galicia lies in the very center of the northern temperate zone, in the band of summer rains. Galicia's northermost point lies in the very middle of the Wisla between the village of Chwalowice in Tarnobrzeg powiat and Zawichost in the Kingdom of Poland, at 50°48'20" north and 39°32' east (from the island of Ferro), almost even with Opatów, Checiny, Luck, Zytomierz, Kiev, Brussels, Calais, etc. Its southernmost point, at the source of the Bialy Czeremosz at 47°45'40" north, is almost even with Komorne and Estergom in Hungary, Hallein in Solny Gród district [now in Slovakia], Zurich in Switzerland, Besançon in France, and Jassy w Multany. Despite this position its weather is incomparably harsher than in other regions, not only those located at the same latitude as Galicia but also those farther north, especially in the western areas. This is because the Carpathian Mountains deflect the influence of southern air from Galicia, and to the north and east it is exposed not only to the influence of harsh northern winds but also to the deflection of winds around the Carpathians; for this reason Galicia has a harsher climate than the Kingdom of Poland.
Winter usually begins, as in all of Poland, in mid-November, and lasts to the end of March. Spring is short and cold; the flora's growth is delayed because of the ground-frosts which usually predominate in April and often in May. Summer, which is difficult to distinguish from spring except for the lack of frosts, is exceptionally hot in the second half of July and first half of August; it is, however, mostly rainy. This is because all of Poland is in the summer rain band. These rains begin around the 8th to 15th of June and last to the end of the month or to mid-July. In general there are up to 90 rainy days a year; during summer heat the temperature usually reaches +24°C [75°F], and the summer heat from 15° to 20°C [59° to 68°F]. Fall is most often sunny but cool. In October the temperature falls to +4°C [39°Fl. The strongest frosts usually last from 15 December to 15 January, then diminish; but they return in the first half of February, due to northern winds, and often recur a third time for a few days in the first half of March.
There are, on average, 65 cold days, 25 less cold, and 15 without frost; during the winter there is snow 100-120 days from 1 December to 15 March. In all there can be up to 75 sunny days a year.
The eastern part of Galicia has milder weather. In the northwest part of the country moist northwest, north, and northeast winds prevail during spring and summer; in the southern part dry eastern and southern winds prevail.
In view of the country's varying elevation above sea level and the various climatic conditions and consequent natural systems, we divide Galicia into three climatic regions: the mountain region, the region of cool and wet Baltic plains, and the region of dry steppe Black Sea uplands.
The first region includes the mountains and foothills with valleys cutting through them. They are characterized by a lower annual average warmth than in the plains; springs are later, cool, and wet; summers are short; summer days are hot and the nights cold; the falls are sunny with morning mists; the winters are early, long, and frosty. There are more cloudy and wet days than clear in the summer, and more snowy ones in the winter. It is a region of forest pasturage. We divide it by elevation into three sections: 1) the Alpine section, of high mountains and mountain meadows (fir and spruce forests; cultivation of oats and potatoes); 2) the section of medium-height mountains (forests with pasturage clearings; cultivation of spring rye and flax); and 3) the section of areas between the mountains-valleys, fairly large rivers, and foothill watersheds (mixed woods and beech trees, cultivation of winter rye, wheat, fruit trees).
The second region includes the whole Baltic flank and the Styr's Black Sea drainage basin. It is characterized by prevailing northwest, north and northeast winds, wet and cool, and wetter and cooler summers than in the third region. It is a land of meadows and forests. The soil here is mainly sandy and poorly drained, divided by fertile clays and dirt. Beneath the surface layer of dirt at various depths are deposits of loams and marl impermeable to water; that is where the bogs, peat-beds, and brownish swamps come from. The overflowing of rivers onto coarse-grain and finer-grain sandy soil leaves rich silt and forest mud and creates fertile soil deposits. On sandy ground pine forests take root, and on clayish ground hornbeam and beech trees mixed with oaks. All this moisture is favorable for pasturage vegetation; the cultivation of rye and potatoes predominates; and wheat can be grown in fertile areas and on clayish soil.
We divide this region into three areas by its various soils: 1) an area of light, unfertile soil with pine and fir forests; 2) an area of sandy soil, bogs, wet forests, fertile riverside spots, poorly drained soil and rubble; and 3) an area of fertile clays.
The third region is formed by the Black Sea flank with the drainage basins of the Dniestr and Danube. It is characterized by prevailing dry winds bringing little moisture, fog, clouds, or rain. Thus the dry, hot summers and cold, sunny winters. Characteristic of this region are: a scarcity of forests-those that do exist consist exclusively of deciduous trees (oaks), and a lack of water sources and less abundant irrigation than in the western and northern plains regions. On the other hand, there is an abundance of grass and broad-leafed green flora. it is a region of agriculture, winter crops, the cultivation of wheat, corn, buckwheat, sugar-beets, hemp, tobacco, anise, and broad-leafed gourd-bearing plants. [Omitted: V. Mining Production, VI. Crop Production; V11. Livestock Breeding.]
VIII. Industry in Galicia is still at a low level. In 1857 Galicia had in all 102,189 industrialists, i. e., factory owners and their working crews; so only 2.2% of the population worked in industry. By 1870 the number had risen to 179,626, or 3.3% of the population. Factory-based industry has begun to grow in recent times. Today Galicia has several dozen major factory plants of various kinds, not counting distilleries and breweries, but there are still too few of them in relation to the production of raw materials. Galician factories cannot consume all the raw material the country produces or satisfy the needs of its craftsmen and inhabitants in general. So a significant portion of this material goes to foreign factories and returns to us as a foreign product, in which process the country obviously loses out, since it sells the raw produce cheaply and buys it back, processed, at a higher price.
Among the more important branches of factory industry, the following are best represented in Galicia: distilling, brewing, sugar production, milling, production of matches and various products from mineral oil and wax. Unsufficiently represented are: production of machinery and paper, tanning, and especially the manufacturing of cloth and fabrics, even though the Galician people has the most aptitude for the latter two branches, and the country supplies an abundance of material. Galician factories process either minerals and non-organic products of the earth, or forest products, or products of agriculture....
The handicraft industry is more developed in Galicia than that of factories. The products of the best craftsmen are in no way inferior to anything foreign, and it is only due to inadequate factory production, which compels them to buy materials from abroad, that they cannot compete with foreigners. The trades best represented are: baking, butchering, hulling, weaving, tailoring, tanning, dyeing, coopering, carpentry, turning, woodworking, masonry, smithing, metalwork, tinsmithing, printing, and the crafts of making candy, cloth, rope, shoes, furs, gloves, saddles and harnesses, brushes, combs, soap, varnish, pottery, cutlery, and jewelry. Clock and watch making are limited to selling and repairing products made abroad and imported. What Galicia has least of is engravers, wood-carvers, sculptors, mechanics and opticians.
IX. Population: According to the 1869 census Galicia had 5,418,016 inhabitants; that is 3,972 souls per square Austrian mila, or 69 per square km. But the western part is more densely populated than the eastern; in the west there are 4,905 people per square Austrian mila, in the east 3,596. The plains are more densely populated than the mountains, and in the mountains the part belonging to the Baltic flank is more populous than that of the Black Sea flank. Finally, the western and eastern ends of the country are more populous than the middle.
A look at the degree of population in individual powiaty gives the following numbers in the northwestern part of the country: Wieliczka 7,444 per square mila, Biala 7,144; Tarnów 6,542; in the eastern part of the country, Sniatyn 6,079, Czortków 5,714 per square mila. The least populous powiaty in western Galicia are Nowy Tag (2,934 per sq. mila) and Nisko (3,303 per sq. mila). In eastern Galicia they are Nadworna (1,618), Kosów (1,811), Lisko (2,122) and Turka (2,154).
The population of Galicia is scattered in 11,373 settlements, of which 6,134 are villages and hamlets, 4,925 are manoral estates, 230 are small towns, and 90 are cities. With annual population growth at 1.49%, by the end of 1880 we would have 6,311,986 souls. Since the last census in 1869 the average growth in population is over 11 years is 893,970. The census taken at the end of December 1880 will soon show the actual population of the country.
In terms of ethnic origin, Galicia's population consists of natives and foreigners. The native or original population consists of Poles and Ruthenians. Poles comprise 45.9% of the country's entire population, Ruthenians 42.6%. The Poles live primarily in the western part, west of the San, and the Ruthenians in the eastern part; however in western Galicia there are Ruthenian settlements in the mountains up to the Nowy Sacz area on the Poprad river, and in the eastern part there are Polish settlements.
The foreign population accounts for about 12% of the whole. Among them are Germans who settled as farmers in colonies scattered in various regions of the country (see Zehlicke's article "Die deutschen Kolonien in Galizien" in the periodical Im Neuen Reich, 1876, vol. I) and in cities as officials, industrial workers, tradesmen, and factory workers. They account for about 1% of the whole population. Next come the Armenians, kinsmen of the Slavs, of whom there are 2,400, settled-besides in Lwów-mainly in Pokucie [Translator's Note: Pokucie, in Ukraine on the upper Pruth and Czeremosz rivers, was the southeastern corner of Poland's territories]. Then there are: the Mennonites, who immigrated from Friesland long ago and settled in the powiaty of Lwów (Einsiedel, Falkenstein, Mostki) and Gródek (Neuhof and Kiernica); the Jews, who comprise 10% of the population and live mainly in the cities and small towns, but in the villages as well; the Karaites, a Jewish agricultural sect in Halicz; and the Gypsies, bands of whom wander the borderlands of Bukowina and Hungary.
In terms of religion the entire population, except for the Jews, Karaites, and Gypsies, is Christian. The Poles are Roman Catholic, the Ruthenians Greek Catholic, and the Armenians have their own Armenian Catholic rite. The Germans are primarily Protestant. The Mennonites are a Protestant sect that left Friesland with the Anabaptists in the 16th century. The Karaites comprise a separate sect of Judaism, rejecting the Talmud and its traditions. The percentage of Catholics is 46%, Greek Catholics 42%, Jews 10%, Protestants .73%, and other faiths about 1%.
In terms of occupation the Galician population is agricultural. Those living by agriculture and from agricultural income comprise 83.5%; those employed in industry and trade 9%; those employed in personal services 4.8%; owners of homes and possessions of pensions 1%; and those supporting themselves on acquired learning and devoting themselves to the sciences only 1.5% (!).
The Galician people, Polish and Ruthenian, are generally well-proportioned, robust, handsome, with engaging facial features and indefatigable strength and endurance. The Galician is characterized by a clear, healthy, inborn intelligence and circumspect courage. By nature possessing more good than evil inclinations when not subjected to depraving influences, he is religious, loyal, obliging, and hospitable. He is attracted to those who have treated him well and knows how to be grateful, but is, on the other hand, rarely vengeful. These good qualities are tarnished by sloth, indolence, a lack of liking for and persistence in work, a lack of education, and the often nasty habit of drunkenness. He only works as much as he must to satisfy his most essential needs, very few in number; he cares little about the elevation and improvement of his farm, about a more orderly, comfortable and healthy dwelling, about saving money or securing grain reserves. Thus when the expected harvest proves disappointing, or a natural catastrophe afflicts the area, he falls victim to need, hunger and illness, incurs usurious debt, and often gets into such a plight that, dispossessed of his house and land, he becomes a proletarian. He preserves old customs and manners, and does not like change of any sort, whether in life style or in the way he runs his farm, and most often rejects with suspicion and mistrust the most salutary advice, allowing himself with child-like gullibility to be exploited by leaseholders and usurers.
Under the influence of different living conditions dictated by nature itself, different styles of living and earning a living, and the influence of neighbors of different ethnic origins and contact with various foreign influences, the Polish and Ruthenian people has divided into many groups differing in dress, customs, and even dialect, and bearing various names, adopted from nature or from the names of their dwellings or from certain characteristic traits of dress or speech, as well as from other circumstances that are hard to make out today. We distinguish two main ethnographic groups, the góral, i. e., the mountaindweller, and the podolak or równiak, the plainsman. The góral peoples are the Zywczaki, Babiogórcy, Rabczanie or Zagórzanie, Kliszczaki, Podhalanie, Nowotarzanie, Pieninski and Sadecki Górnie, Spizaki or Gardlaki, Kurtskis or Czuchoncy (the Lemkes and Rusnaks), Bojkos (Werchowyncy), Tucholcy, and Huculs (Czarnogórcy). The most prominent peoples of the Galician plainsdwellers are the Krakowiacy, Mazury-including the Grebowiacy (Lisowiski or Borowcy), Gluchoniemcy, Belzanie, Buzanie (Lapotniki and Poleszuki), Opolanie, Wolyniacy, Poberezcy or Nistrowianie. The reader will find detailed descriptions of these tribes under their respective entries.
X. Division of the country. Galicia is divided into 74 powiaty named for the towns which serve as their seats: Biala, Bóbrka, Bochnia, Bohorodczany, Borszczów, Brody, Brzesko, Brzezany, Brzozów, Buczacz, Chrzanów, Cieszanów, Czortków, Dabrowa, Dobromil, Dolina, Drohobycz, Gorlice, Gródek, Grybów, Horodenka, Husiatyn, Jaroslaw, Jaslo, Jaworów, Kalusz, Kamionka Strumilowa, Kolbuszowa, Kolomyja, Kosów, Kraków, Krosno, Lancut, Limanowa, Lisko, Lwów, Mielec, Mosciska, Myslenice, Nadworna, Nisko, Nowy Sacz, Nowytarg, Pilzno, Podhajce, Przemysl, Przemyslany, Rawa Ruska, Rohatyn, Ropczyce, Rudki, Rzeszów, Sambor, Sanok, Skalat, Sniatyn, Sokal, Stanislawów, Staremiasto, Stryj, Tarnobrzeg, Tarnopol, Tarnów, Tlumacz, Trembowla, Turka, Wadowice, Wieliczka, Zaleszczyki, Zbaraz, Zloczów, Zólkiew, Zydaczów, Zywiec. [Omitted: XI. Road systems and XII. Trade].
XIII. Administration. Galicia, as one of the constitutional crownlands of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy, has the same administrative institutions as the other crownlands of the Austrian half of the monarchy... The representatives and autonomous authorities are: 1) the national sejm and bureau; 2) the national council and delegates; 3) powiat councils and bureaus; 4) gmina councils and authorities; 5) trade and industrial houses. The Emperor summons the sejm yearly. The sejm's sphere of activity-part legislative, part administrative, part supervisory- includes all matters regarding the crownland ... in general everything connected with the welfare and needs of the country, to the extent it does not infringe on the imperial council. The Galician sejm consists of eight clerical authorities, two doctors from the Universities of Kraków and Lwów, and 141 delegates ... elected for a term of six years; the country's president is appointed from among them by the Emperor himself for the same term.
XIV. Spiritual authorities and institutions. In Galicia, as throughout the Austro-Hungarian monarchy, there is complete freedom of conscience and religion. Every citizen of age is free to convert from one faith to another. Every legally recognized religion can celebrate its rites publicly and administer its own religious affairs independently. The legally recognized religions are: Catholics of all three rites, Greek non-Uniates, Protestants, Unitarians, and Jews. Adherents of every legally recognized religion have equal civic and political rights. Christian faiths: the Roman Catholic church is under the authority of the Archbishop of Lwów and the three bishops of Kraków, Tarnów, and Przemysl. The Greek Catholic Church is under the authority of the metropolitan in Lwów and the bishop of Przemysl. The Armenian Church is under the authority of the Armenian Archbishop. The Augsburg and Swiss denominations are under the authority of the Galician Superintendent in Lwów, whose jurisdiction also includes Bukowina. The Augsburg Protestant Superintendent's office is divided into three senioraty: the western (7 parishes), the central (10 parishes), and the eastern (5 parishes), primarily covering Bukowina. The Reformed Protestant Superintendent has four parishes: Andrasfalva, Koenigsberg, Josefsberg, Kolomyja. There is a Greek oriental chaplaincy in Lwów.
The Jewish faith has a national rabbinate in Lwów and 26 powiat rabbinates. In addition, each Jewish community has its own szkolnik [sexton]....
[Omitted: Sections XV. Education, XVI. Social institutions, XVII. An Overview of Galicya's History, and XVIII. Bibliography.]
[For more information on Galicia see Genealogical Gazetteer of Galicia, Brian J. Lenius (Box 18 Group 4 R.R. #1, Anola, Manitoba, CANADA R0E 0A0], and Gerald Ortell's Polish Parish Records of the Roman Catholic Church, just re-published by the PGSA].
Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1881, vol. 2, pp. 445-474]
This translation, by William F. Hoffman, first appeared in the August 1996 issue of "Rodziny Journal of the Polish Genealogical Society of America".
Garcigórz, called Garczigórz by [Kaszubian folklorist Florian Stanislaw] Ceynowa, Garczegorz by Hilferdyng, in German Garzigar, and Parczewski heard the name as Garczagóra in the nearby village of Sarbsk [the modern name is Garczegorze]: a village in Pomerania, in Lebork county, on the Leba-Lebork highway, about 8 km. from Lebork, parish of Lebork, 5 Catholics. In 1348 Heinrich von Rechter, Gdansk commander of the Teutonic Knights, issued this village a new charter on terms of Chelmno law.
There were to be 60 wlókas, of which the soltys, Arnold von Vicken, received 6 free, as well as 3 pennies on legal judgments, both large and small; the commander kept for himself only [fines from] offenses on public roads. According to a 1437 listing of Lebork district there were 50 wlókas here, on each of which a rent was to be paid of 14 skoty and 5 denarii; there were also 6 free wlókas, on three of which rent began to be paid in 1439, 1440 and 1442. The total income from settled lands was 26 marks, 11 skoty, 10 denarii. In a 1658 inventory of Lebork district we read a list of the names of gburs: Piotr Katcken, Andrzej Gravetzki, Janusz Schmidt, Maciej Borin, Michal Bette, Pawel Borin, Piotr Krus, Jakób Katke, Maciej Kenses, and gardener Pawel Vick. There were 60 wlókas, of which the pastor had four, and the sexton (Küster) one; the Lutheran preacher also received 4 wlókas along with a vacant gbur farm. 4 wlókas had been deserted nine years before, and now, after the war with Sweden, 4 were still deserted. The soltys had 6 free wlókas. A little forestland still belonged to the village, but it was badly devastated and little remained. Compare Reinhold Cramer's Geschichte der Lande Lauenburg und Bütcow.
In Garcigórz there was a parish church since ancient times, of government patronage, called St. Mary Magdalene's. The following small villages belonged to the parish: Garcigórz, Wilkowo, Oblewice, and part of Rekowo. The pastor owned 4 wlókas, and a fifth was bequeathed to the local Catholic teacher (according to Szaniawski's inspection report). After the Reformation, since almost all the German residents converted to Protestantism, the Garcigórz church was incorporated as a branch of the Lebork one. It was long neglected, and around 1770 it collapsed. Then the Protestants thought they would take its site and build a new church for themselves; they even submitted a petition for this to the king of Prussia. But the ardent Ignacy Lniski, Wloclawek canon and pastor of Lebork, quickly built a new church at his own expense, in 1777, and frustrated their designs. The church was built in Prussian fashion, the roof covered with rough-hewn logs; there were three bells in the tower; the interior had a brick tile floor, with 30 pews and 4 windows; in the altar was an image of the church's patron saint, Mary Magdalene. The pastor came here sometimes from Lebork for services; the Lutherans joined in them willingly enough; and in 1802 they told the bishop on his inspection tour that they heard the sermons as often as possible, whenever the pastor came to them. In more recent times the Garcigorz church was still visited at times, but it was not cared for adequately and it slowly deteriorated. Finally in 1840 a strong windstorm finished it off. Since then it has not been rebuilt, and the Garcigórz congregation has been dissolved and attached to the church in Lebork See Rev. Fankidejski, Utracone koscioly i kaplice, page 225. According to Parczewski in 1856 there were still old folks who spoke Kaszubian; but these days the village has been wholly Germanized. [Rev. F(ankidejski)].
Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1881, vol. 2, pp. 486-487]
Copyright © 2002 William F. Hoffman. Used by permission. This article originally appeared in Rodziny (Vol. XXV, No. 2, Spring 2002), the journal of the Polish Genealogical Society of America.
- in the County of Szybin
Gąsawa, city (in old documents Gonzawa) in Szybin County at the lake and river Gasawka. In 1871m there were 91 houses, 854 inhabitants, 102 Protestants, 620 Roman Catholics, 132 Jews and 310 illiterates. In 1875, there were only 827 inhabitants. The Catholic church and parish belonged to the Deanery of Znin. The inhabitants were engaged in agriculture and animal husbandry. There was a third class telegraph and post office. Passengers and mail were carried from Gniezno through Gasawa to Naklo. There was an elementary school with a few classrooms. The nearest railroad station was in Mogilno, 22Km away. This locality belonged to the Trzemeszno Abbey and was known as a village in the 12th century. In 1388, it was invested with city rights based on Magdeburg law. In 1237, Duke Swietopelk invaded Gasawa when Leszek Bialy called for a trial to condemn and punish him for insubordination, crimes, and troubles stirred in Greater Poland. He was particularly condemned for the invasion of Naklo. His servants had injured Henryk the Bearded while he was taking a bath and they killed the escaping Leszek Bialy near the village of Marcinkowo Gorne. The Poznan Scientific Society searched for the exact place of the assassination to put a memorial cross there, but they met with obstructions from the authorities.
Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1881, vol. 2, p. 508]
Submitted by Alice Nelsen. Used by permission.
Giby, a government-owned village in Sejny county, Pokrowsk gmina [district], Sejny parish, near the lake called Herod. It has 99 houses, 698 occupants and the gmina office. In the year 1827, it had 41 houses, 353 inhabitants. Now.
Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1881, vol. 2, p.543]
This translation, by Mark Kaszniak, Edited by William F. Hoffman, is used by permission.
Gierduszki (or Gerdushki)-- a farmstead and peasant village on the Czarnica River, in the 3rd police district of Oszmiana province, 32.5 miles from Oszmiana and 20.6 mi. to Dziewieniszki. The farm has 28 Catholic inhabitants; the village contains 60 Catholics and 34 Orthodox.
Editor's Note: All Slownik longitudes in this article have been converted to modern coordinates which is based on the Greenwich zero meridian. All Polish measurement units (land areas, distances, height above sea level, etc.) were converted to American-English equivalents. Monetary units, where identified, were left in zlotys/zl. or rubles/rs.
Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1881, vol. 2, p. 560]
This translation, by Mike Gansecki, is used by permission.
Gierniki, a peasant village and private manor, Lida powiat, 3rd administrative district, about 7 km. from Szczuczyn. In the year 1866, the village had 16 houses, 142 inhabitants; the manor had 11 inhabitants.
Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1881, vol. 2, p. 564]
This translation, by Barbara Proko, first appeared in the Summer 1998 issue of "Bulletin of the Polish Genealogical Society of America".
a village in the Gdansk area, 12 km. south of the town of Wejherowo, in the district of Szemud.
1) a village in Poznan county, 21 houses, 233 people, all catholic, 69 illiterate. The church in the village belonged to St. Mary Magdalene parish in Poznan. A post office and a train station were in Gadki, 5 kilometers away, and another train station was in Poznan, 10 kilometers away. The church was a separate parish in the 15th century. Lukasz Koscierski, bishop of Poznan, included it into his own church, All Saints, in Poznan in 1582. Krzysztof Szembek, a later bishop in Poznan, included the church in 1720 with St. Mary Magdalene Church in Poznan. It is a brick church from about the 15th century, and most probably the architect was Piotr Dunina who made his living by building churches. He built many churches in the whole province. In the 18th century the village of Głuszyna was part of the Jesuit school in Poznan.
2) Głuszyna - a manor house in Poznan county with 5095 acres (morgs) 2480 of them were forest - 6 houses with 83 people, 1 protestant and 82 catholic, 40 were illiterate. It belonged to Lord Dzieduszycki.
Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1881, vol. 2, p. 618]
This translation by Malgorzata Biela is used by permission.
Gnieszowice, a village owned by the clergy on the river Koprzywianka, in Sandomierz county, Koprzywinica gmina [district] and parish. In 1827 there were 41 houses, 252 inhabitants; at present [i.e., circa 1880] the number of houses was 56, with 336 inhabitants, and 624 mórgs [approximately 866 acres] of peasant-owned lands. In the 15th century it was the property of Pawel Skotnicki, count of Bagonga (according to Długosz, Liber beneficiorum, volume I, page 396).
Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1881, vol. 2, p.621]
This translation, by Mark Kaszniak, edited by William F. Hoffman, is used by permission.
1) a village and manorial farm in the county of Kutno, Township and parish of Kutno, on the railway line. It has 21 dwellings and 350 inhabitants. The town has been comprised generally the same since 1710, of which 125 morgs belongs to the distant city of Kutno, 2133 meters away. The homesteads wealth was for the benefit of culture. In 1827, Gnojno had 21 dwellings and 124 inhabitants. The manorial farm was acquired in 1872 for 150,000 silver rubles. To the estate of Gnojno belongs the village of Siemiennik’s 4 settlements with an area of 6 morgs; and Debina’s 5 settlements, with an area of 60 morgs.
2) Gnojno – a village, manorial farm and estate, in the county of Mlawa, Township of Niechlanin, parish of Sarnowo, lying about 25,602 meters from Mlawa, having a school and fire department. It numbers 16 dwellings and 253 inhabitants with 1228 morgs of land. The manorial farm of Gnojno, the village of Gnojno, Petrykozy and Gnojenko, were acquired in 1870 for 32,700 silver rubles. Open area comprises 1088 morgs of which arable land and gardens are 717 morgs, meadows 175 morgs, pasture 88 morgs, forest 85 morgs, and that which is unusable or under buildings is 23 morgs. It is divided into 11 fields. Of the buildings, 3 are brick and 20 are wooden. It has layers of peat, calcium carbonate, and limestone. The village of Gnojno has 28 settlements and 51 morgs of land. The village of Petrykozy has 12 settlements and 413 morgs of land. The village of Gnojenko has 2 settlements and 58 morgs of land.
3) Gnojno – Grabiny – a village and manorial farm in the county of Lipno, township of Klokock and parish of Ostrowite. In 1827 there were here 14 dwellings and 141 inhabitants. At present there are 22 dwellings and 211 inhabitants. It has 969 morgs of land of these 14 are not arable.
4) Gnojno – a village in the county of Lipno, township and parish of Bobrowniki. The village of Gnojno along with the settlements of Jonne, Zmyslin, Osiny, Wakole, and Celiny encompass 591 morgs of land of which 590 were under cultivation. It had 26 dwellings and 135 inhabitants, a Lutheran house of prayer, a Lutheran school, a tavern and an inn. The manorial farm inhabited by a foreign noble, belongs to the parish of Osowska. It numbers 10 dwellings and 70 inhabitants. It encompasses 373 morgs of land, of which 320 are under cultivation.
5) Gnojno – a village in the county of Pultusk, township of Kliszewo, parish of Zambsk. In 1827 it had 26 dwellings and 207 inhabitants. In 1854 this manorial farm was detached from the estates of the Gorski’s.
6) Gnojno – a village and manorial farm in the county of Stopnica, township and parish of Gnojno. It is located on the paved road between Chmielnek and Kurozwek. It contains the brick parish church, community school and an invalid home for the elderly and infirm. In the 15th century it already possessed the brick parish church of St. John the Baptist and the village also had two manorial farms and belonged to the inheritance of Przemysław Wojszyka of the coat of arms Lodzia. (Długosz, II, 443.) Gnojno was the seat of the Gnojnski’s but in 1842 it was owned by the Luniewski’s. Here were planted the first Italian poplar trees in Poland which the country squire Rupniewski, castellan of Malogoszcz brought from Constantinople. This same Rupniewski in nearby Grabka erected a Turkish house (in ruins by fire). In 1827 Gnojno had 57 dwellings and 480 inhabitants. The parish of Gnojno belongs to the deaconate of Stopnice and numbers 5087 souls. The township of Gnojno belongs to circuit court District I of Chmielnik, where is also located the post office. It encompasses an area of 12,995 morgs and has 4879 inhabitants. The estate of Gnojno is made up of the manorial farms of: Gnojno, Pozogi, and Piasek. It was purchased in 1874 for 65,714 silver rubles. The extent of the manor encompasses 1393 morgs; the manorial farm of Gnojno has 661 morgs. There are 16 brick buildings and 6 wooden structures. The manorial farm of Pozogi has 432 morgs, and contains 2 brick buildings and 5 wooden structures. The manorial farm of Wiktorow has 300 morgs and contains 2 brick buildings and 1 wooden structure. It rotates crops between 6 – 8 fields and has a distillery, an American mill, and a sawmill. There are some layers of peat and limestone. The River Wschodnia flows through the territory. The village of Gnojno has 71 settlements and 594 morgs of land; the village of Pozogi has 19 settlements and 131 morgs of land; the village of Piasek has 6 settlements and 46 morgs of land.
7) Gnojno – a village and manorial farm on the banks of the Bug River in the county of Konstantynow, township of Zakanale, parish of Janow. It possesses an Orthodox parish for the Ruthenian people. The village of Gnojno lies on this Bug River and constitutes a safe harbor for barges going to Gdansk with grain from the entire area within a three mile radius. On the sandy hills are found embankments said by the people to be a pagan cemetery, but this has not been proven. In 1827 there were in the village 39 dwellings and 389 inhabitants. The present number is 51 dwellings and 403 inhabitants. It has 1125 morgs of landed property. The manorial farm of Gnojno belongs to the estate of Konstanty now. Br[ronislaw] Ch[lebowski]
Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1881, vol. 2, p.661]
This translation, by Jerry S. Kucharski, FIC, FICF, is used by permission of the author.
Gnojno, Inowrocław powiat
Golub, in German Gollub, during the times of the Teutonic Knights Golau, Golbe and sometimes Goldau.
1) Golub: A town in western Prussia and Brodnicki County. It stands on the steep, right embankment of the river Drweca, which is spanned by a wooden bridge. The road over this bridge leads to Dobrzyn, which lies 3 miles from Torun and Brodnica, over a mile from Kowalew, at the other end of Poland. Kowalew can be reached by a beaten track and has much traffic being on the Wystrucki-Torun line.
In 1864, it had a population of 2,558 (in 1816 only 1,049) and today around 4,000 including the Jewish citizens. There are 1,097 Catholics, 1,461 Protestants, 335 buildings, 176 houses and it covers an area of 2,482 morgs. There are 2 churches, Protestant and Catholic, a synagogue, magistrate, post and telegraph office, customs office, salt warehouse (in 1864, municipal court (Amtsgericht) and a municipal Protestant and Catholic school. The town’s grain and timber trades are significant. Fairs, including stalls, cattle and horses, take place four times a year. Up on the hill, near the town there are still the ruins of the post Teutonic castle. According to the oldest historical information, Golub, together with the surrounding area including Pluskowesy, Ostrowite, Krazno and Chelmonie, belonged to the Kujawy bishops.
In the second half of the XIII century, Szymon Gallicus and Wojciech from Stolna leased lands placing peasants on them. Furthermore, they paid the Teutonic Order taxes and served in the war with their 5 units of cavalry (5 Platendienst mit Hengot und Harnisch). However, they were unable to fulfill the requirements due to the frequent attacks of the heathen Prussians. And so in 1289, an agreement was reached by the Kujawy bishops and the Prussian master, Meinard; the Teutonic Order took the Golub lands and the bishops received the village Lisewo on the river Drweca and the lakes Okunin and Grzywna near Chelmza.
In 1300, the Teutonic provincial master, Konrad Sack built a fortified castle on the Drweca and after retiring from his post as the first Golub commander, lived there. Here is a list of his successors: Hermann – 1306, Prince Luther von Braunschweig – 1308, Eliger von Hohenstein – 1321, Frederik von Libenzelle – 1333, Ludwik – 1337, Jan – 1343, Henryk von Stockheim – 1349, Jan Bollant – 1373, Markward von Larheim – 1376, Hartman von Koenigstein – 1381, Frederic von Wenden – 1392, Burgard von Wobeke – 1393, Konrad von Elz – 1397, Wojciech von Tonnen – 1402, Pawel Rulmann von Dademberg – 1404, Mikolaj Roder – 1407, Konrad von Buchsek – 1410, Karol von Walterhause – 1410, Wilhelm von Eppingen – 1411, Jerzy von Eglingen – 1413, Jan von Menden (vom Ende) – 1416, Wincenty von Wirsberg – 1430, Gotfryd von Rodenberg – 1433, Frederik von Troschwitz – 1436, Wilhelm von Eppingen – 1442, Zygfryd Eryk – 1449, Konrad Esel – 1454 to 6 Jan. 1465.
Information on the income and villages belonging to the Teutonic Golub area are fairly exact. The following information is taken from the Teutonic documents (see Lotar Weber’s Preussen vor 500 Jahren, 409 and 410). Manors: Golub Castle has 3 ploughs, Kielpin 2, Owieczkowo and Sortyka (Sauerteig). Gentry manors (Lehnsgueter), Karczewo, Chelmonie, Chulschau, (Cholman), Kurkocin, (Kirchdorf, possibly also Reinisdorf), Galczewo, (Gr. Galsdorf), Gaczewko, Ostrowite, (Osterwitz), Plachoty, Pulkowo, Pulkowko, Rodowo, (Rodau, Roden?), Redemin(?); 8 of the above provide cavalry for wartime.
Villages giving goods: Krazno, Zielen (Grueneberg), Lobodowo, Lipnica, (Linde), Lisewo, Nowa Wies, Ostrowite, Pluskowesy, Pulkowo, Radowiska, M. and W. Skepsk (Scampen), Reinisdorf (Kurkocin?), 537 drags of land and 8 village administrators, who are active service.
Mills: taken in, from Chelmon 1800 (?) korzec (measure) of rye and 60 kamien (measure) of tallow, from Lisewo 5 kolo (measure) and the first fullery (Walkmuehle), and W. Radowisko. The last two gave 600 korzec rye, 16 fattened pigs, and 49 kamien tallow; Polencowy mill (Polenzmuehle), Adam (Adamsmuehle), Gorny (Obermuehle), Stepski (Stampesche Muehle) and Kamienski mill (Camenz Muehle).
In 1393, the Order took in 350 marks in rents. In 1337 the mills produced 930 korzec rye in 4 months and later at least three times as much.
There were 11 parishes in the area.
In 1317, Prince Ziemowit ofDobrzynski presented the Order with 50 measures (lan) of land near the castle (most probably on the other side of the river Drweca) but soon afterwards it was taken by Wladyslaw Lokietek. (Orgelbrand’s Encycl).
In 1410, Dobieslaw Puchala conquered the Knights of the Infland Swords and seized the fortified castle. There were two castles here at that time and the lower lying one was burned by the Germans in the hope of better defending the second. This did not help and it, too, had to surrender to the Poles.
In 1414, the Order summarised the damage incurred during the war with the Poles. “The church in Golub burned down, 120 m. losses (only!), the town burned out, loss of 8519m, 8 villages in the area burned: Pulkowo, Rodowo (that is why it does not exist?), Nowa Wies, Galczewo, Lisewo, Lipnica, Ostrowite and Skepsk. Other villages suffered damages. All in all, the area lost 20548m. In 1421, the Teutonic Commander, Michal Kuchmeister, bestowed a new privilege on the town, as the old one was missing, probably lost in the war.
The town boundaries are: from Liszewo right up to between the hill and the river Drweca (bis an den Fuss der Anhoehe) and the stream, “Schamnitz” - the hill provides clay for brick making and building; from here, the “Schampinz’ rivulet and river Drweca up to the boundary of the village, Schampen, which used to be a Prussian village, and on to another stream in the forests. This stream crosses the road near the meadow lying in a deep valley. Using small devices, the people may fish all they can in the Drweca, as far as the boundary goes. The income from the stalls in town run by the tradesmen, butchers and bakers belongs to us but we only take half from any new ones arising. The brewery in town is free of payments (soll ganz frei sein). Each year, every farm (Hof) will provide us with 11 skot.
In 1422, after having conquered the city, Wladyslaw Jagiello took the castle by storm and had the tower removed.
In 1457, Kazimierz Jagiellonczyk passed the Golub castle and some others onto Ulryk Czerwonka.
In 1460, Golub was betrayed by its citizens and ended up in the hands of the Teutonic Knights. Czerwonka was the only one to defend the castle.
In 1462, 12 castle soldiers entered the city, killed the watchmen, and opened the gates thus enabling Czerwonka to regain the town. The Teutonic Knights were either killed or taken prisoner.
From the time of the Torun Peace Treaty in 1466, Golub became a Niegrodow starost in the Michalowski lands in the Chelm voivode.
In 1584, Krzysztof Kostka was the Pommerian voivode and Golub starost.
In 1605, King Zygmunt gave his sister, Anna, the Golub starost for the duration of her life. She lived in the castle and created an expansive garden, which she lovingly tended. Apparently it exists to this day near the castle ruins. The king visited his sister in Golub in 1623. Around 1640, Krzysztof Lode, the Golub starost and owner of the nearby Pulkow, had a large altar erected in the parish church. In 1648, his wife Katarzyna Lodowa, nee Eck created the Brotherhood of St. Anne and Rosary Circles and had a separate chapel built after her husband’s death (St. Wawrzyniec).
In November 1655, the Swedes invaded the town and did much damage to the castle. In 1772, Golub was annexed by Prussia and, in 1781, work was begun on the Lutheran church.
It is worth remembering that Golubin is the birthplace of the meritorious Polish linguist, Franciszek Maliniowski, whose father was Lord Mayor of the town.
The diocese schema of 1867 states: Golub parish has 3248 souls, St. Katarzyna Church, under government patronage, was built in brick around 1293 presently totally rebuilt; the hospice is for 4 poor citizens; 3 brotherhoods - Divine Charity from 1441, Rosary from 1617 and Sobriety from 1858, branch in Ostrowit with Jakob Dekowski the parish priest since 1863; curate 1 - Jan Rogalewski, curate II - vacant. The parish villages are: Skepsk, Owieczkowo, Sluchaj, Sokola Gora, Neubruch, Pasieka, Krazno, Lipnica, Galczewo, Galczewko, Lisowo, Nowa Wies, Zawada, Nowy Mlyn, Gryta-Kalita, Konstancyewo, Nadwielkalaka; Ostrowite, Gajewo and Pocwiardowo belong to the sub-churches. Schools: Golub 300 children, Lipnica 71; 121 Catholic children attend the Lutheran school in Skepsk and 29, the one in Galczewo. Earlier, the following churches and chapels existed in the Golub parish: 1. Holy Cross Chapel in Golub castle, built with the castle around 1300. The Teutonic Knights held services in it and it remained in existence during Polish rule. The floor was made of brick and the ceiling was vaulted. There were 3 altars, beautiful steel erections in the presbytery and choir stalls. Today the remains of the beautiful vaulting can still be seen. 2. St. Hipolit Chapel stood outside the city by the roadside. It existed in 1647 but thereafter was never mentioned again. 3. St. Wawrzyniec Chapel, a four-sided wooden building with two turrets. Stood on the hill outside the Torun Gate endowed by the previously mentioned Katarzyna Lodowa nee Eck. 4. The church in Lipnioy burned down in 1610. Building began during the lifetime of Princess Anna but discontinued after her death. 5. The church in Nowa Wies existed in 1444 but was probably destroyed during the ensuing wars because it is never again mentioned.
The Golub deanery has 10749 souls and 7 parishes: Chelmon, Golub, Kowalewo, Lobdowo, Pluskowesy, Radowiska and Wrock; 3 sub churches: Kurkocin, Ostrowite, and Zielen. Apart from the above there were also churches in Sloszew, Pulkow, a chapel and provostry in Kowalew.
There were 12 Catholic schools and 400 children attended Lutheran schools. The deanery did not have any monasteries/convents but the Golub and Kowalew castles had fortified monasteries. In 1618, there were plans for a monastery in Golub. A foundation was set up for the Benedictine Fathers near Torun and Maciej Strogowski, the town mayor, bequeathed his large corner house, a large garden and orchard with bee hives, a granary by the gates on the Drwec, his manor close to the town and 2 measures of land, close to Torun, left by his deceased wife. However, for reasons unknown, the foundation did not come to fruition.
2) Golub: The Golub royal forest inspectorate arose from the lands of nobility ( Konstancyewo) in 1852 and lies approximately half a mile north of the town. The area covers 20000 morgs and there are 4 buildings, 9 Catholics, 4 Protestants, a school, a parish and a post office. It incorporates the following sub inspectorates (Schutzbezirke): Mszano, Brodnica, Czartowiec, Dabrowka, Riebesthal, Mokry Las, Tokary, Baraniec, Skepsk, Strebaczno, Mlyniec, Kwasnik, Zaradowiska, Neulinum and Czablewo.
3) Golub: Golub Castle adjoining the Golub manor has 10 buildings, 4 houses, 25 Catholics and 23 Protestants. The relatively well-preserved walls of the former Teutonic Knight and starost castle are home to a warden and several poor individuals.
4) Golub: Golub farm was formerly a starost one but is, today, in private hands. It covers 2,574 morgs of land, has 18 buildings, a house and 10 homes, 163 Catholics, 34 Protestants, a parish, school and post office.
Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1881, vol. 2, pp. 658-661]
This translation, by Jola Jurasinska, is used by permission.
Gombin (properly Gąbin), town on the river Nida, in Gostynin powiat, connected by highways with Warsaw (117 km. away), Gostynin (34 km. [sic]), and the Pniewo railway station on the Warsaw-Bygdoszcz line (26 km.). It has a Catholic parish church, a Protestant congregational church, three elementary schools (two Catholic, one for males and one for females, and one Protestant), a municipal office, and a postal station. It belongs to the District III Justice of the Peace jurisdiction in Gostynin and the Wloclawek conference of judges. In 1827 it had 197 houses and 2,395 inhabitants; in 1861 it had 253 houses and 2,624 inhabitants, including 1,909 Jews. As of 1877 it had 5,834 inhabitants, 2,848 men and 2,986 women. As for religion, half of the population is Jewish. There are 254 habitations, of which 27 are brick, the rest of wood; the Catholic church is brick with a sheet-iron roof; the Protestant church is brick with a tile roof-both are in good condition.
The following factories are in Gombin: a steam mill, 4 horsepower, with an annual production worth 6,000 silver rubles, employing three workers; a tannery, existing since 1806, where 8 people work, minimum sales 90,000 silver rubles; a smaller tannery, employing two people, with annual sales of up to 10,000 silver rubles; two oil mills, each employing two people and one horse, annual sales 3,000 silver rubles; two soap-works, each employing two people, annual sales 3,000 silver rubles; two shops producing handmade clothing, each employing three people, sales 1,000 silver rubles; a small-scale vinegar factory employing two people, sales 900 silver rubles; two dye-works, employing two people, sales 4,500 silver rubles; a shop producing cloth by hand, employing two people, sales 450 silver rubles; a boiler-works employing three people, sales 15,000 silver rubles. In addition to the factories listed above Gombin has seven cylinder windmills, each employing two people, accounting for 25,000 silver rubles; two cylinder water mills employing five people and bringing 3,000 silver rubles; one brewery, employing three workers, with annual sales of 1,200 silver rubles. The city treasury's income in 1877 was 5,931 silver rubles, expenses were 5,871, reserve capital 10,790, and the reserve fund had 3,553 silver rubles.
Gombin is a very old settlement, as seen by its local church, probably built by one of the Mazovian princes in the 14th century. Its antique glazed bricks, ornamented with various figures and emblems, attest to this in view of the lack of other data. In 1437 Ziemowit, prince of Rawice and Sochaczew, granted Gombin a settlement charter based on German law, and the charter was confirmed by Kazimierz Jagiellonczyk in 1462 and Zygmunt I. Fires in 1540 and 1545 destroyed Gombin and although it was rebuilt, the Swedish wars once again cast the undefended town of wooden structures into ruin. New royal grants and charters could not halt the decline of Gombin, which lacked the necessary conditions for successful development. Not until the current century did it begin to rise, after the establishment there in 1824 of a factory settlement with 30 clothiers imported from Germany, and later as a result of the development of the sugar industry and of agriculture throughout the whole vicinity.
Gombin parish, belonging to Gostynin deanery, numbers 6,152 souls; the Protestant congregation numbers 3,000 souls. The Gabin deanery of Warsaw archdiocese has 17 parishes: Brzozów, Czermno, Gąbin, Gizyce, Slubice (formerly Jamno), Ilów, Kiernozia, Luszyn, Oporów, Osmolin, Pacyna, Rybno, Sanniki, Suserz, Trebki, Troszyn, Zyck.- K. Sek
Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1881, vol. 2, p. 681]
This translation, by William F. Hoffman, first appeared in the Summer 1997 issue of "Bulletin of the Polish Genealogical Society of America".
Góra, in German Guhrau 1.), a village and estate in Pszczyna county, Miedzna parish, on the river Vistula, about 10 km. east of Pszczyna. The estate Góra, owned by prince Pszczyna, has 3 manorial farmsteads (Góra, Dabrowa and Grosshof), 2 sheepfolds (Sandschaeferei, Feldschaeferei), and with the adjoining manorial farmstead Zawadka covers 2,684 mórgs [about 1694 acres] of sandy soil. The village of Góra has a branch church, Saint Barbara’s, and a Catholic school.
2) Góra, in German Guhrau, a county seat in Silesia, within the Wroclaw regency. It has 4,100 inhabitants, a secondary school with a practical curriculum rather than classical, 83 windmills, and an organ factory; it is known for its asparagus farming, and has 10 fairs. After the Thirty Years War, 600 houses stood empty there. The Catholic parish church was founded in the period 1032-1037; outside the city is the cemetery church of Body of God and a Calvary [a site devoted to commemorating the Way of the Cross and Christ’s passion]. Since 1714 there has been an evangelical church and a chapel on the site of a former bleachery. Góra county covers12 square milas [1 mila = about 7.5 km.], with 37,000 inhabitants, mostly Evangelical and almost exclusively Germans. The cultivated land is for the most part sandy, with many meadows and forests, a great many mills, and with flourishing sheep farming. Towns in the county are Wasosz and Czernina, along with the village of Ryczyn.
Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1881, vol. 2, p.689]
This translation, by Mark Kaszniak, Edited by William F. Hoffman, is used by permission.
Góra, Inowrocław powiat
6) a village in Wagrowiecki powiat , 36 Homes / Farmsteads, 373 Inhabitants, 11 Protestants, 359 Catholics, 3 Jews, 128 are illiterate. There is a Catholic Church All Saints & Sw. Roche attached to the deanery of Rogow. There is a Post Office in Znin a distance of 5 km and a Railroad Station in Gniezno a distance of 30 km
Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1881, vol. 2, p.735]
This translation, by Jim Piechorowski, is used by permission.
1) a village and manor farm in Ciechanów county, Opinogóra gmina [district], Ciechanów parish, away about 4 versts [approximately 4.3 kilometers] from Ciechanów. It has 28 houses, 255 inhabitants, and 850 mórgs of land [about 1,180 acres]. The Grędzice manorial farmstead belongs to the estate of Opinogóra.
2) Grędzice, see Grądzice
Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1881, vol. 2, pg. 808]
Grądzice or Grędzice, a village owned by nobles in Ostrów county, Szulborze - Koty gmina [district], Andrzejew (Zaręby?) parish. It has 4 houses, 24 inhabitants.
Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego , Warsaw [1881, Vol. 2, Page 803]
This translation, by Jim Piechorowski, is used by permission.
Grodno, a gubernia town on the River Niemen. It has a landing stage and rail station on the Warsaw- Petersburg section of the Białystok- Wilno line, between Kuznica and Porzecz. It is 78 wiorst from Białystok, 147 from Wilno and 242 from Warsaw. Latitude north 53° 41’ and 41° 30’ longitude west. The 10.5-mile long postal trail used to connect it to Augustow and Minsk is 307 wiorst away. In 1817, it had 1109 houses of which 122 were brick-built. The population of 5091 included 3212 Jews. In 1860, there were 20121 people living in 1815 homes of which 284 were brick-built. It has 4 Catholic parishes: 1) St. Francis (4697 souls), the brick-built church previously Jesuit was founded in 1663 by bishop Izajkowski; 2) Church of the Finding of the Holy Cross (previously Bernadine), founded in 1595 by King Zygmunt; 3) Church of the Annunciation next to the convent of the Bridgets erected in brick by the Wesolowski family and 4) Church of Our Angel Lady, by the Franciscan monastery (2748 souls), erected in brick by Eustace Kurcza in 1635. There are chapels in Grandziczach, Poniemun and Augustowka and earlier in Kochanow. The Grodno deanery of the Wilno diocese has 13 parishes, 4 of which are in Grodno, Indura, Jeziory, Wielkie Ejsymonty, Hoza, Mosty, Kamionka, Krynki, Kwasowka and Lunna, (previously 15 parishes; apart from the already mentioned: Wielka Brzostowica and Mala Brzostowia). There are 37191 faithful in the deanery. The Greek Orthodox deanery in Grodno had 6600 faithful in 1857. Grodno County has two more Greek Orthodox deaneries: Skidel and Loszan. During the Great Seym they tried to form a Grodno bishopric in place of the Inflancki one. King Stanislaw August wanted to give this seat in the senate to the erudite ex-Piarist, Kazimierz Narbutt, priest in Lidzki (?) and Radzimin. The partitioning of the country put a stop to that. The Augsburg Protestant parish, including Izabelin, Slonim and Kcollo, had 388 souls in 1857. According to Prussian sources, across the Niemen from Grodno, there was a Crusader castlec erected in 1392 by the Balg Commander. In the middle of the XII century Grodno was the capital of the sovereign princes and had a fortified castle where the Horodniczanka enters the Niemen. It was at this time that it came into the hands of the Tartars after the horrendous battle in which Prince Jerzy Hlebowicz was slain. Two centuries later, Mendoga’s brave sons-in-law, Erdziwill, Wikind and Towciwil took over the ravaged Ruthenian area together with Grodno, Wolkowysk and Nowogrod and incorporated them into Lithuania. As a result of numerous battles waged by the Lithuanian rulers against the Crusaders, Witenes built a massive stronghold in Grodno. In 1414, the Grodno and Trocki Duchies were combined to create Trocki County. Batory visited here often and had a new fortified castle built in brick and moved in unexpectedly himself, in 1586. From thence on the city experienced a boom. The last rays of grandeur are to be seen during the time of the first general Seym held in 1678 under the auspices of Prince Fr. Sapieha and Tyzenhauz’s rule.
From a policing standpoint, Grodno is divided into two parts and five areas, today. It has two squares – Paradny and Stary Rynek. The house in which King Batory died stands on the latter and from it the following streets radiate: Dominikanska, Brzeska, Bernardynska, Brygidzka and Bonifraterska. The most attractive part of town is Horodnica, which was presented to the town by Tyzenhauz. It has many beautiful gardens, palaces and expansive homes. There are 11 synagogues and 4 churches. Other buildings worthy of mention are: the barracks, previously a castle, the male secondary school with the Dominican monastery, theatre (a reminder of Tyzenhauz) and the magnificent buildings belonging to the Lubecki and Lachnicki Princes.
In 1879, Grodno had a population of 34,775 of whom 4,781 were Catholics. It had 11 factories, a male, female and Jewish secondary school. The woods called Sekret, the Podhulance, Urbanowce, Augustow (owned by de Lascy), and Poniemuniu (owned by the Lachnickis) provided wonderful places for walks and relaxation outside the town. One of the richest Jesuit colleges in Lithuania existed in Grodno and was most likely founded by Wladyslaw IV in 1623. During August III’s reign, Grodno had a Basilian abbacy. Tyzenhauz founded a medical school here and between 1779 and 1780 published the Grodno newspaper and in 1792 a weekly medical journal.
Saint Kazimierz, son of Kazimierz Jagielonczyk, died in this castle on 4 March 1484. The painter, January Suchodolski, was born in Grodno.
The Grodno seyms and confederations are mentioned in Orgelbrand’s smaller encyclopaedia (vol.49) and in the well-known work of Ilowajski’s “The Grodno Seym – L`Acte de demarcation des limites entre l`empire de toutes les Russies et le royaume de Prusse, conclu a Grodno le 21 Juin (2 Juillet)” 1796 (Russica, catalogue nr. 150). “Warsaw Library” 1848, III – “Weekly III. “1877, Nr. 82.
There is a description and picture depicting the post Jesuit church in Klosy vol. 18.
In 1588, the Grodno economy consisted of 14 keys and 4 forests and there were 200 and more villages and manors. (pamphlet “Ekonomie” vol. 2 page 324). The main ones are: Horodnica, Nowydwor, Lawno, Krynki, Odelsk, Krasnik, Kwasowka, Kuznica, Kotra, Skidel, Wiercieliszki, Jeziory, Salaty, Milkowszczyzna and Mosty. In 1771, the villages paid 375 zlotys and the wojtostwo 500.
The Grodno starosts were: Hrehory Aleksandrowiczow – 1569, Jan Aleksandrowiczow – 1573, Aleksander Chodkiewiczow - 1576 – 78, Krzysztof Chodkiewiczoe - 1632, Karol Chreptowiczow - 1752, Karol Chreptowiczow - 1787, Aleksander Prince de Holszany - 1499-1501, Andrzej Kottowiczow - 1652-75, Jan Franciszek Kottowiczow - 1698-99, Hrehory Kottowiczow - 1707, Jan Kazimierz Kierdey - 1678, Jerzy Lith. Prince Massalski - 1571, Jan Prince Lith. Massalski -1696, Michal Lith. Prince Massalski -1733-65, Jan Mlocki - 1461, Stanislaw Piotrowicz -1499-1501, Kazimierz Pac - 1690, Jerzy Mikolaj, Prince Radziwill - 1530, Albrycht, Prince Radziwil -l 1639 - 1, Dominik, Prince Radziwill - 1696, Fryderyk Sapieha - 1648, Leon Sapieha - 1649, Kazimierz Leon Sapieha, Bazyl Tyszkiewicz - 1561, Teodor Tyszkiewicz – 1616, Antoni Tyzenhauz – 1765 – 76, Gedeon Tryzna – 1651, Jan Wollowicz – 1566, Andrzej Wollowicz – 1630, Pawel Wollowicz – 1630 and Jerzy Zbaraski – 1609.
The creation of the Grodno guberniya. In 1795 the Russian government created the Slonim guberniya by annexing parts of the Polish province to Russia. In 1796, the Wilno guberniya was added and together they became the Lithuanian guberniya and in 1801, part of this guberniya was made into the Grodno one. In 1842, the districts of Lidz and Nowogrod were removed and the Białystok area was added. Today the Grodno guberniya is encompassed by: to the north, Wilno guberniya alongside the river Rotniczanka, the mires of Nadkotrzan, rivers Niemen and Szczary to the estuary of the Jaworka, continuing through fields and swamps to the Niemen, partly the Niemen and then overland to the village of Boczkowiec; to the east, the counties of Nowogrod and Pinsk belonging to the Minsk guberniya up to the river Prypec, where all three guberniyas converge and, generally speaking, through mires, swamps, forests and lakes; to the south, the border follows the Prypec through swamps and quags, which fill the valleys of the river and its tributaries, in other words, it stretches along the Wolyn Polesie to the river Bug from where it becomes the west boundary, the kingdom of Poland – more precisely formulated - the rivers Bug, Nurzec, Liza, Narew and Biebrza. Geographically speaking, the guberniya extends from 40°7’ to 43°32’ longitude east and 51° 31’ to 54° 3’ latitude north. According to Strielbicki the Grodno guberniya covers an area of 34058sq. wiorst and according to the army’s topographical survey 3512806 dziesiecin. The guberniya does not have any higher mountains or ranges and nowhere does the elevation exceed between 500 and 600 feet. Only in the east, in Slonim County, does it reach 1000 feet. A plateau runs through the middle of the guberniya and acts as a watershed for the rivers flowing into the Baltic and Black Seas. The southern part is flat, relatively low lying and slopes towards the Polesie. Geologically, the area is predominantly Tertiary. Devonian, Silurian and sedimentary strata, containing the fossils of sea and river creatures, can be found in some of the hills dotted throughout the guberniya. No plutonic or metamorphic rocks have been found. Interesting from a geogonic aspect are the sands of Buzan, Lesnian, Muchawiec, Jasioldzian and the Niemen sands in Pruzan, Wolkowysk and Slonim. The wind disperses them over the fields causing great damage. There are numerous chalk and lime hills near the Bug and Niemen. According to Bobrowski’s 4 volumes on the Grodno guberniya “Materials for the Geography and Statistic of Russia” rivers cover 160,000 dziesiecin of the area, streams and rivulets 6,400, ponds up to 10,000, mires and lakes 228,000. Together they account for 4,600,000 dz. of the area or one eighth. The high-lying swampy area in the north east part of Pruzan county and the southern part of the Wolkowyski is where the three water systems of the Baltic and Black Seas meet. It is here that the rivers Jasiold, Narew and some of the Niemen’s tributaries begin and from here they flow in three different directions. The Niemen system is of great importance to the Grodno guberniya followed by the Wisla and lastly the Dniepr. The Niemen belongs, in part, to the guberniya from the estuary of the Szczary to Rotniczanka with its tributaries: right Kotra with Pyrra – left Promsza with Molczadzia, Szczara with Hrywda, Lohoza and Issa, Zelwa, Ros, Swislocz and Lososna. The Bug in the guberniya receives the Muchawiec, Lsna, Pulwa and Nurzec.The Suprasl and Biebrz fall into the Narew. The Jasiolda and Pina fall into the Black Sea. There are not too many lakes in the guberniya and are concentrated in the north and south east. In the counties of Slonim and Kobrynsk they play an important role supporting a network of canals. The lakes in the north, in the Grodno guberniya, are connected by small streams. On 23 March 1841, the waters of one of these lakes, Salaty, overflowed into the river in a 14 wiorst long fall so that it was possible to sow buckwheat on the lake bed that same year. Lowlands and mires cover around one fifteenth of the area. The remaining area is covered in forests and shrubbery or is swampy and impassable. These swamps can be divided into three groups: north, middle and south. The evaporation process of these shallow waters produces harmful vapours. They contain much turf and iron ore hampering the growth of lush grass. In some places amelioration work has begun with the construction of canals. The climate is temperate, no extremes. It is changeable and damp due to the area’s flatness and lack of trees on the higher lands. The annual average temperature in Grodno is 5° C and in summer 14°C. Work in the fields is carried out during 6 months of the year and the trees retain their foliage for 188 days in the year. The winds are mainly north-westerly and south-westerly. The guberniya grows the same crops as its neighbours. The fauna and flora is very varied. The following crops are grown successfully: rye, wheat, spring and winter corns, barley, buckwheat, peas, millet, flax, hemp, tobacco, hops, potatoes, vegetables. There is an abundance of fruit trees, various berries, fodder producing crops and medicinal herb, which are collected by the many local herbalists. Pine trees prevail, spruce trees are sporadic never forming a forest; oak, beech, ash, maple, aspen and birch grow together. The most important animals are the bison and many wolves. (Gilbert: “Flora Lithuanica, seu enumeration plantarum quas circa Grodnam collegit et determinavit 1781”). In the Grodno region as in the areas beyond the Niemen and Bug the 3-field agricultural system continues to be practiced. There are three crops – wheat, rye and buckwheat. Wheat is grown on humus, humus-mulish and mulish-clay soils, rye on an alloy of sand and clay, and buckwheat on gravel with clayish-sand soils. The areas best suited to the growing of wheat are to be found in: Grodno County by the river Swislocz, Pruzan County near Wyzek and Tewel, the greater part of Kobryn County namely, on the Bug and around the county town, the eastern part of Slonim county, Wolkow region around Krzemieniec and lastly the extensive cornfields near Bielsko and Sokolka. The fertilising of 2 morgs of land requires 150 cartloads of manure, which in turn means 3 to 6 larger cattle or 30 to 60 smaller ones. The guberniya’s arable land, which covers an area of 2 million morgs, would then require 4 to 8 million heads of cattle but has only 600000. Due to the lack of soil upgrading, rye is sown more than wheat. The average ear consists of seven seeds but can also be, as little as, two. The sun often damages the oat crop but the rye and barley crops are usually good. Oats and buckwheat are grown almost everywhere; tobacco, broad beans and hops by the Narew; in the Brzeski, Kobrynski and Pruzanski counties millet and wheat; flax, hemp and lentils are grown in small amounts; potatoes, cabbage, turnip and other vegetables are grown in the gardens. The orchards were renowned for their produce and even today, when many manors no longer exist, the fruits still excel when it comes to quality, quantity and price. The 90 thousand horses are usually small and weak. In the Pruzan, Kobryn and Brzeski counties a new race of cow has been introduced – a cross between a cow and a bison, an excellent producer of milk, with thick short legs and bay-reddish in colour. Many years ago the finest cattle could be found in the byres of such families as the Walicki, Lachnicki, Wirion, Haliburton, Wolowicz, Trembicki, Skirmunt, Giedrojec, Chrzanowski, Mostowski, Biszping, Ejsmont and Ossolinski.
Earlier there were 300,000 sheep producing 15 thousand poods of wool. The best merino flocks belonged to the families Puslowski, Delasow, Trembicki, Ostromecki, Lubecki, and Ossolinski. The handicrafts had their beginnings as far back as the days of Witold and although their growth was slow they came to be known and much respected. When the towns were granted the Magdeburg rights by the Jagiellons many talented foreigners were drawn to them and saw the establishment of an industrial middle class. The XVI century saw the quick growth of trade guilds in Grodno, Bielsko, Slonim and Drohiczyn. At the beginning of the XVII century the local iron products, mead fermenting and the production of various spirits enjoyed renown. However, the trades reached an apex during the commendable Tytenhauzen days. Factories producing linen, camlets, woollen cloth, hats, and coaches could compete with abroad. Even after the downfall of their founder, his spirit lived on and the cloth factories in Chomsk, Izabelina, Rozana, Alba, Grodno and Wolkowysk continued to prosper until 1815.
1830 was the year of the crisis. The trades and crafts in the Kingdom of Poland plummeted and the crisis continued until new venues were discovered in Białystok and other towns. At the beginning of this century, the Grodno trades were taken over by the Jews and remain in their hands to this day. The businesses in Brzesc, Grodno and Kobryn as well as the markets in Zelw, Swislocza, Wysoki-Litewski and Szczuczyn have been the central point of the Jewish business monopoly for more than half a century.
The average price of a piece of land here in 1879 was 27rs. 54 kopiejka for a dziesiecina. In 1880, there were 483991 dz. under winter crop, 356630 dz. under corn and 121096 under potatoes. That same year they harvested 1787887 czetw. winter corn, 1274678 czetw. corn, 2178703 czetw. potatoes and 22479648 poods hay. According to administrative records of the Grodno guberniya, before the disposition of 5 March 1864, there were around 30 non- Polish citizens holding 55266 dz. land, 1171 Poles holding 904059 dz. On 1 July 1870, there were 250 non-Poles holding 295303 dz., 1060 Poles holding 700383dz. Non-Poles bought 188000dz. privately, 16,000dz. in auctions and the remainder from the treasury.
On 01 January 1880, the Grodno guberniya had a population of 1165401 and in 1878, 1,131,502 of whom 563767 were male and 567740 female (166034 increase since 1868). There were 614141 Greek Orthodox, 299615 Catholics, 202699 Jews, 12411 Protestants, 2636 Mohammedans, (in 1857 there were 96794 Jews). The guberniya has 9 catholic deaneries: Grodno, Wolkowysk, Slonim, Pruzan, Kobryn, Brzesk, Białystok, Bielsko, Sokol and all the Wilno dioceses. There is one Grodno deanery in Grodno County. Wolpa parish belongs to Wolkowysk County. In 1857, there were 317 Greek Orthodox parishes in 29 deaneries and 127 Catholic parishes in 9 deaneries. The Grodno guberniya is divided into the following counties starting with the most populated: Sokol, Białystok, Bielsko, Grodzien, Wolkowysk, Kobryn, Brzos, Pruzan and Slonim. In 1857, it had 9 county towns, 16 lesser, 75 small ones and 6162 inhabited areas. In 1879, there were 47 post offices. The main transport routes are railways: Petersburg-Warsaw, Brzesk-Kiev and Warsaw-Terespol.
The marshals of the Grodno guberniya’s nobility were: Krzywicki, Puslowski Frano, 1805 Niemcewicz Stan. Ursyn, 1807 Borejsza Pawel, 1812-21 Pancerzynski Ludwik, 1820-23 Count Kazimierz Grabowski, 1817 Andrzejkowicz Feliks, 1827 Prince Konst. Czetwertynski, 1854-59 Kalikst Orzeszko and 1856 Count Starzynski.
Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1881, vol. 2, pp. 831-834]
This translation, by Jola Jurasinska, is used by permission.
Grodno powiat (county) covers the north- west part of the gubernia. In the north-east it borders with the Wilno guberniya, to the south with Wolkowyski County, to the west with Sokol County and Suwałki guberniya. It covers 3709 sq. wiorst or 386364 dziesiecin including 79979 government owned and 82923 woodland. It has 156818 inhabitants including those of Grodno or 41.6 people per sq. wiorst, 80332 women, 76486 men, 70860 Greek Catholics, 48427 Catholics, 306 Protestants, 37273 Jews, and 1144 Mohammedans. The main factories in the county are: cloth – 7 (11932 rs. money), tobacco – 2 (95000), distillery – 16 (452000), brewery – 8 (71000), honey – 7 – (7520); steam mill – 1 (14200), candles – 2 (4280), soap – 2 (2240), tannery - 19 (48460), brickworks – 10 (16851).
There are five states or administrative areas: Grodno, Krynki, Lunna, Skidle, Porzecze and 21 communities.
The area is undulating especially around the Niemen, which divides the county, almost perfectly, into two. To the north of the county there is Grodno Forest, which, in 1857 stretched for 70 verst in an east – west direction and was 40 verst wide. The west part of the forest is hilly and the eastern part is muddy with turf. Timber is floated down the Niemen, Kotra and its tributaries Niewisza, Pyrra and Berwianka. The upper part of the Pyrra is the navigable Tyzenhauz Canal, which connects it with numerous, outlying navigable lakes: Zadubien, Biale, Mleczne and Lota. The lakes Hrud, Birsztack and Werowsk are connected by streams and rivulets and fall into the Kotra. According to Bobrowski, it was Mr. Walicki who contributed most to the dehydration of the forests and the creating of navigable waters. It was he who built the Berwianski and Rybnicki Canals, among many others. Due to the bad soil the timber in the forest is not of good quality. There is an abundance of fish in the lakes and, up until 1840, leeches were also plentiful. They disappeared that same year. The most important lakes in the county are Niemen, Kotra and Swislocz. The main communication line is the Petersburg-Warsaw railway. The more important towns are: Grodno, Druskieniki, Mosty, Kamionka, Kruszyniany and the above mentioned county administration towns.
The marshals in the former Trocki province and in more recent times were: Aleksandrowicz Jan, 1632, Aleksandrowicz Stefan 1690, Aleksandrowicz Michal 1704, Buchowiecki Krzysztof 1655–62, Jundzill Dunin 1766-73, Kruk Jan 1476, Kierdey Wladyslaw 1647, Kierdey Jan Kazimierz 1669-70, Prince Teodor Massalski 1613, Prince Jan Massalski 1700, Prince Wasil Polubnicki 1500, Prince Bazyl Polubnicki, Piotrowski Mikolaj 1648, Piotrowski Stanislaw 1657, Tyszkiewicz Jerzy 1564, Tyzenhauz Antoni 1764, Wolmer Kazimierz 1784-93, Wollowicz Jozef 1775-76, Wolkowicki Jan 1780-83, Aleksandrowicz Tadeusz 1798-1800, Prince Konstanty Czetwertynski 1822, Eysymont 1821, Lachnicki Roman 1854-59, Orzeszko Kallikst 1848, Pancerzynski Ludwik 1805-07, Reyten Stefan.
Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1881, vol. 2, pp. 834-835]
This translation, by Jola Jurasinska, is used by permission.
1. A village on the right bank of the Skawa river; in the Wadowice district; the residents belong to the Roman Catholic parish in Pakrowice; the village is attached to the post office in Zator; the distance from the village to Zator is 4.5 km; there are 246 inhabitants, all of Roman Catholic religion. The minor estate has 177 morgs of farmland, 50 of pastureland and 56 of forest. The village used to be the possession of the monastery in Zwierzyniec.
2. G.; a village on the Grodzisko stream which flows into the Wisłok river; in the Rzeszów district; it is attached to the Roman Catholic parish in Dobrzechów and to the post office in Strzyżów. The distance from the village to Strzyżów is 8 km. There are 860 residents, all Roman Catholics. There is a two-grade school building loco. The major estate has 181 morgs of farmland, 12 of meadows and gardens, 8 of pastureland and 67 of forest. The minor estate has 1019 morgs of farmland, 98 of meadows and gardens, 88 of pastureland and 157 of forest. The village used to be the possession of the monastery in Koprzywnice (Lib. benef. III, 392).
3. G.; a town and the villages of Grodzisko Dolne and Grodzisko Górne in the neighborhood. The town is situated near the wide part of the Wisłok river where it flows into the San river; in the Łańcut district; on the western edge of Ruthenian settlement. There is a parish church loco, which is built of bricks. The erection of the church started in 1720 and it was finished in 1754. There is a post office and a three-grade school building. The number of residents: 5094, 364 Jews included. The inhabitants make their living from the soil and from the cloth manufacture. Cloth markets which are famous in the region are organised here. The town’s major estate has 332 morgs of farmland and 58 of meadows and gardens. The minor estate has 3200 morgs of farmland, 341 of meadows and gardens, 216 of pastureland and 428 of forest. The minor estate in both villages combined has 2629 morgs of farmland, 104 of meadows and gardens, 171 of pastureland and 244 of forest. Grodzisko Dolne has a gmina loan society with the capital of 300 Polish zloty.
4. G.; a village; the Dobromil district; on the Wyrwa river; near the Galicia-Hungary railway route; 6 km to the north-east of Dobromil; 2 km to the south-east of a post office; the Roman- and Greek-Catholic parishes in Nowe Miasto. The number of residents: 138. The major estate has 12 morgs of farmland, 13 of meadows and gardens, 1 of pastureland, 53 of forest. The minor estate has 134 morgs of farmland, 17 of meadows and gardens, 1 morg of pastureland and 1 of forest.
5. G.; the Kozłowa hamlet.
1. A village in the Pleszew district, on a stream which flows into the Prosna river; 2 km of the village of Prosna; 36 houses; 351 inhabitants; 13 Evangelical Protestants, 338 Roman Catholics, 117 illiterates. The parish church belongs to the Pleszew deanery. The parish has 588 morgs of the open area. The nearest post office is in Pleszew (Pleschen) and it is 9 km of the village; the railway station is located in Pleszew, 11 km of the village.
2. G.; a domain and the commune in the Pleszew district; 5209 morgs of the open area; two localities: 1). Grodzisko; 2). the grange of Wrotycz; 23 houses, 344 inhabitants, 7 Evangelical Protestants, 337 Roman Catholics, 138 illiterates. The grange is the possession of Antoni Taczanowski who is the lord of a manor in Taczanów. There is a mound called szaniec szwedzki (the earthwork of the Swedes) in the neighborhood. This mound was described by Schwartz, who was the head master of a high-school (gimnazjum) in Poznań. He wrote about the earthwork in an essay, which was destined for educational purposes, in 1880. The earthwork is surrounded by meadows, which used to be swampy and covered with alder forest in some parts. At present, the meadows became dry and they were brought under the plough. The change was caused by the process of the Prosna river-bed significant depression. The earthwork was covered with a grove until quite lately. The circumference of the entire earthwork is 700 steps; it consists of two separate parts; the entire earthwork is surrounded by a ditch. The earthwork is 7 to 800 steps of the Prosna river. The local residents say the earthwork was raised by Kazimierz Wielki, the king of Poland. When the king was threatened by Teutonic Knights in Pyzdre, he moved back in the direction of Lipa, the village which is situated on the border line in the present times. Then, he moved to the area of Grodzisko. He retrenched himself at the swamps. He left the swamps when his father, Władysław Łokietek appeared with the reinforcements.
3. G.; a village in the Krobski district; 6 houses; 42 residents, all Catholics, 8 illiterates. There is a post office in Gostyń, 7 km of the village. The nearest railway station is in Bojanowo, 11 km of the village. There is the earthwork of the Swedes in the village neighborhood.
4. G.; a domain in the Żytowiecka commune; in the Krobski district. 2654 morgs of the open area; 5 houses, 133 residents; refer to Żytowiecko entry. The possession of Count Leon Mielżyński.
5. G.; or Grodiszczko; the presbytery grange which belongs to Giecz, a stronghold in the Środa district; 3 houses; 28 residents, all Catholics, 12 illiterates. The parish church (the Catholic rite) is attached to the Kostrzyń deanery. The nearest post office is in Nekla, 6 km of the village; the nearest railway station is in Środa, 11 km of the village. This locality is surrounded by a trench; the bank is opened in the direction of Giecz and there is a swamp; there is an entry opposite. The trench and the ditch have a circumference of 675 steps. There is a church, a presbytery, farm buildings and a cemetery in the area of the embankment. While they were digging the place for a pond near the stronghold of Giecz, the workers came across oak piles which had traverses; the piles are said to be the remnants of a bridge which led to Giecz. Grodzisko is a nest of the Grodziski family who lived in the region of Wielkopolska. They used the Ogończyk coat of arms. Grodzisko was the possession of this family until the sixteenth century. It is possible that the church was founded by this family but it is commonly said that the church was founded in 1240 by Przemysław, a prince in Wielkopolska. Łukaszewicz opposes this idea. He argues that the situation in which a prince (the ruler at the same time) founds a church in the nobleman’s village instead of the state village is improbable.
Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1881, vol. 2, p.843]
This translation, by Jaromir Iwanciow, is used by permission.
Gruta. Government owned village, on the lake Gruta, powiat [district] of Troki. 4th administrative district. 99 wiorst from Troki. 8 houses, 85 inhabitants, all Catholics. (as of 1866)
Gruta. (Grutta, ger). 3 localities, powiat [district] of Grudziądz, on large lake Lome, 1/2 a mile from gravel road from Grudziądz to Radzyń, ¼ mile from the railroad from Jabłonów to Grudziądz and the railway station in Mielno. 1 ½ mile from Grudziądz.
1) Gruta. Church village. Area 4431 morgs, 220 buildings, 110 houses. 775 Catholics. 42 Lutherans. Local parish and school; post office and railway station in Mielno.
2) Gruta. Manor farm. From 1866 on called Frankenhein. 2627 morgs of fields, 20 buildings, 8 houses, 149 Catholics, 34 Lutherans. Parish, school and post office as above.
3) Gruta. Formerly a free sołectwo [a farmstead belonging to the village head], currently belonging to the estate of the Knight of Orle. From 1855 on called Bergaus. Located on the lake and adjacent to the church village Gruta. 3 buildings, 1 house, 14 Catholics, 6 Lutherans.
Originally, there was only one Gruta village. Probably, some kind of a settlement existed there from the time immemorial, although it has not been documented. In the documents form 1222, there is a mention of a forest Gruth, offered to the bishop Christian. It is uncertain if this was the exact same area as the current village. First documented information about the village comes from 1282. In this document the Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights Mangold von Sternberg gives away the village named Frankenheyn. From the document, it appears that the village was already in existence at this time. Von Sternberg mentions an area of about 2 włoki where in the past an ancient village was located. He mentions also that his predecessor the Grand Master Ludwig von Queden (1249-1252) gave the land to Herman von Meiningen to build a settlement there. There were exactly 108 włoki, as today, all on the lake Lome. The settlement did not succeed because Prussians invaded the village and plundered it. Now, in this document, von Sternberg gives the ownership of the exact same area to Konrad von Lewitz.
In 1315 the Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights Karol Beffart allowed the locals to fish in the lake Lome. It is mentioned in 1414 that there were 2000 local casualties in the battle between the Teutonic Knights and a Polish troupes. Despite all this by the year 1435 village Gruta has 148 włóki; 8 of which belong to the village head, 4 to the parish priest, with remaining 136 leased to the castle in Rogozin. There were a lot of inns - total of 7 - in the village.
That the ancient Polish name Gruta, known and used even by the Teutonic Knights, is still in use is due to the privileges granted to the town of Radzyń by the Grand Master Paweł von Russdorf in 1438. In 1667 canon Strzesz visiting the village writes that the old Teutonic Knights church is beautifully appointed on the hill overlooking the lake. From the church tower one can admire the beautiful vistas of the surrounding lands and forests. He also writes about the local school that even though it did exist in the past now is neglected and the school garden was taken away by starosta [the prefect].
In 1677 new privileges were given to the village by Jan Sobieski [King of Poland, (1629-1696)] in which Gruta was granted 3 elective representatives - called leman.
In 1726 some names of the local peasants are listed: Jakób Kędziorka, Paweł Piszorok, Michał Buczek, Paweł Klucznik, Jakób Czajkowski, Stanisław Uszler, Maryan Pilarski, and others. The same year, they received new privileges from the podczaszy królewski [royal deputy cupbearer] Jan Gruszczyński, the administrator of the Rogozin estate.
In 1743 the visiting bishop writes that the old Teutonic church although made of solid brick, is very small and has a bad layout. He complains that the absence of the local school is due to “ob nimiam negligentiam et ruditatem parewtum [parventum – EZ]” [because of too many negligent and uncultivated peasants – EZ] who do not send children to school. In 1747 the royal decree was issued to return the original 8 włóki to the parish priest and to build a new church. The subsequent wars prevented in fulfilling the order, and the fields were not returned. They managed, though, to build the church - made of brick and much more spacious than the old one. The cost of the construction was covered by the royal administration of the Rogozin estate.
In 1765 the visiting administrator of Rogozin estate writes that there is a manor farm in Gruta with 10 houses and an inn where they sell beer from Rogozin. In 1766 the village representatives (leman) were: Wojciech Deczyński, Andrzej Mierzwicki, Paweł Klucznik, Wawrzyniec Papalski and a nobleman Walenty Zglnicki. The latter two were most likely the village heads (sołtys) because the village was allowed to have only 3 representatives.
In 1776 the King of Prussia Fryderyk II [Friedrich II Hohenzollern “The Great” (1712-1786) - EZ] established a school in Gruta. German, Polish, Latin and arithmetic were taught there. In 1784 Prussian government gave the Gruta manor, which was leased to the government official Jan Gotlieb Müller, to the royal estate in Rogozin. The manor farm was in poor condition and has been much neglected. The manor had 115 włóki of area. Originally there was no manor in Gruta. Due to the wars and other misfortunes peasant farmlands have decayed and the fields were turned over to the manor farmstead.
In 1787 Ksawery Pawłowski holds sołectwo [the office of the village head and a farmstead that went with the title – EZ]. In 1802 merchant Chomse from Grudziądz buys the sołectwo and incorporates it, with a government approval, into his Knight of Orle estate. The sołectwo becomes a part of his family trust (fideikomiss). In 1855 the government allows for the sołectwo (small farmstead) to be named Bergaus. In 1830, Andrzej Piszora who settled on 32 włoki, and, along with his business partners, was in charge of collecting rents and szarwark [payment for maintenance of the local roads and bridges – EZ] received the ownership of the farmstead from the Prussian government.
In 1833, the peasant fields were divided. Two włoki of the communal pastures, which were to be divided as well, have overgrown with trees and bushes and have been neglected. See: Frölich, Geschichte des Graudenzer Kreises, 157.
About the Gruta church and the parish, we can read in the diocese schematism. Parish Gruta, diocese in Radzyń, church Wniebowzięcia Marii Panny [Our Lady of the Assumption] under the royal patronage. Nothing is known about the erection and the consecration of the church, although some details have been mentioned above. 1800 inhabitants, hospital [a house for the poor] for 4 people. Parish villages: Gruta village, Gruta manor farm, Słupy, Orle, Hansfelde, Annaberg, Ramutki and Petershof. 100 children attend the school in Gruta, and 100 in Słupy. 20 children go to the Lutheran school in Orle.
Previously, there were two other churches in the parish. One was in the village Słupy. It was erected by Bolesław Chrobry [King of Poland, (967-1025) – EZ] to commemorate his war victories and the rule over this area. The church had 6 włóki of land and was still in existence in 1444. Later it must have been damaged in the wars because there has been no mention of it since. Even the existence of the church land was forgotten. Until the year 1648 when the canon of Kruświca and a parish priest Stanisław Mysłkowski regained the land back through the legal procedures. The other church was in Orle. It was made of brick and had a bell tower. In 1667 the visiting official wrote that the church, which was by then taken over by the Lutherans, was in total ruins. Only the walls were standing there with the roof collapsed and the doors wide open. One could still recognize the insignia of the consecration on the walls, though. In 1700 the ruins were dismantled. Michał Mełdzyński, kasztelan [from XV C. on a title of the royal advisory board member - EZ] from Rypin, salvaged the bricks and used them to repair the church in Błędów; the rest of the debris was taken away by the poor. See: Father Fankidejski, Utracone Kościoły [Lost Churches], 85-86. Ks. F.
Gruta, lake in the south-west area of powiat [district] of Troki. 2 wiorst south of Niemen [river]. 3 wiorst long, ½ wiorst wide.
Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1881, vol. 2, pp. 879-880]
This translation, by Eva M. Zuber, is used by permission.
Gudzienieta (or Gudzienienta, Gudenyeta)-- a peasant village on an unnamed stream, in the 3rd police district of Oszmiana province, part of Logumowicze gmina (and a rural district). It lies 46 mi. from Oszmiana and 32 mi from Dziewieniszki with 30 homes containing 185 Catholic inhabitants, 8 Orthodox, and 9 Old Believers (Orthodox?).
Editor's Note: All Slownik longitudes in this article have been converted to modern coordinates which is based on the Greenwich zero meridian. All Polish measurement units (land areas, distances, height above sea level, etc.) were converted to American-English equivalents. Monetary units, where identified, were left in zlotys/zl. or rubles/rs.
Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1881, vol. 2, p. 905]
This translation, by Mike Gansecki, is used by permission.