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Słownik Geograficzny Translations

Ląd

Ląd 1.) Settlement, Sochaczew District, Township and Parish Rybno. 2.) L. (incorrectly Led), village over Warta River, Slupecki District, Ciazen Township, Ladek Parish; 10 versts away from Slupca. Village has 24 houses, 250 inhabitants, manor farm – 5 houses, 55 inhabitants, mill 1 house, 5 inhabitants, and former church settlement - 3 houses, 2 inhabitants. This village has an ancient and famous for its wealth convent and church from Cystersy. Mieczyslaw the Old, after establishing his reign in Wielkopolska, brought Cysters Germans from Kohln’s area, and ensuring their living by income from granted estates, settled at the church built in L. Active monks gained great wealth but did not let foreigners into the monachism. Until 1551, there were 27 German abbots, who were often leaving the convent for Germany, where they collected their income. Zygmunt I ordered in 1539 to welcome Poles, and then, using inclination towards reform ideas expressed by German monks, recommended to choose a Pole as an abbot. Germans then gradually began to leave the convent. Since then, there were 2 abbots, one commendatory abbot, bishop or dignitary, who took 2/3 of income, the other - appropriate abbot, who had only 1/3, but lived in the convent and had the most power. The last commendatory abbot in L. was Woronicz. Polish abbots earnestly tried to elevate their sanctuary. Then, in 1690, Zapolski rebuilt the convent the way we see it today, and the construction was done by Mikolaj Lukowski, who managed the convent for 50 years, made many expensive embellishments, built 2 towers with his own money, and covered the roof with thick, copper plat, which exists to this day. His arms is in the towers. After Cysters left the convent in 1819, the sanctuary was empty for a long time, and would probably be destroyed if it wasn’t for endeavors of Gutakowski family and father Benjamin Szymanski, who obtained a permit from the authority of Lad’s convent to settle in by Capuchins, and later obtained a permit to take collections for church renovation, which floated abundantly. In 1850 the convent renovation began, and in 1852 it was led to its old magnificence. Capuchins were in L. until 1864. After Capuchins left the convent, it lost a lot of its former magnificence, although even now it shows a great view, which gives evidence of its great past. Many of the expensive objects were taken to other churches, the convent is in ruins and in a few decades there will be only walls left. Mieczyslaw the Old in 1145 gave Cysters in L. the following villages: Kosciol, Dolany, Mozscho, Klobia, Chocen, Szetlewo, Rzgow, Grabienice, Slawsk, Wronow, Kwiatkow, Chorzen Staralaka, Swiniarowo, Glowiew, Tur, Sobotka. (Diplomatic Code, Rz. & M. I, 1) 1). Compare “Klodawa and Godziszewo”, also read Laski Lib. Ben. I, 101, 282, 313, 320. Description and detailed history of the convent was given by “Rel. mor. Diary” volume I; “Warsaw Daily” from 1851 No. 54 to 133; “Illustrated Weekly” from 1862 (No. 144); “Ear” (“Spike”???) volume VII, pg. 344. In 1858 “Historic News in Abbey and Church in L.” came out (Warsaw 1858). In the last years the original remains of the convent were examined by a famous historian of ancient art Wladyslaw Luszczkiewicz. L. goods are made of manor farms: L. Policzko, Jaroszyn, Zdzary and Dziedzice. Open area is 2998 morgs; manor farm – Lad: cultivated land and under cultivation 748 morgs, meadows 344 morgs, pasture 169 morgs, woods 145 morgs, useless land water and grounds 122 morgs, total of 1528 morgs, brick buildings 17, wooden buildings 1; manor farm - Policzko: cultivated land and under cultivation 169 morgs, meadows 27 morgs, pasture 98 morgs, useless land water and grounds 38 morgs, total of 332 morgs, brick buildings 3, wooden buildings 4; manor farm – Jaroszyn: cultivated land and under cultivation 225 morgs, meadows 3 morgs, pasture 2 morgs, useless land water and grounds 15 morgs, total of 245 morgs, brick buildings 3, wooden buildings 1; manor farm – Zdzary: cultivated land and under cultivation 228 morgs, pasture 27 morgs, useless land water and grounds 9 morgs, total of 264 morgs, brick buildings 4; manor farm – Dziedzice: cultivated land and under cultivation 250 morgs, meadows 51 morgs, pasture 253 morgs, useless land water and grounds 39 morgs, total of 593 morgs, brick buildings 4, wooden buildings 2. In mill settlements perpetual-rental 25 morgs, in which there are 2 windmills; transport on Warta River. Above goods in 1875 were separated from Ciazen goods.

 

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1884, vol. 5, pp. 107-108]

 

This translation, by Jadwiga Serkis, is used by permission.


Lądek

1) urban settlement, earlier town, on the Warta river, Słupca district, Ciążeń community, Lądek parish. Located in the valley of Warta, 1 verst away from its shore, by the Konin-Pyzdry track. 20 versts away from Słupca, 26 from Konin and 217 from Warsaw. Lądek has a brick parish church, an almshouse for 12 old men and cripples, and a grammar school. In 1827 a government town, possessed 71 houses, 620 residents; in 1860 there were 76 houses (24 brick ones) and 727 residents (19 Jews); currently, there are 82 houses and 814 citizens. Lądek was founded 1230 by the Cistercian abbots from the nearby Ląd abbey as a town on the German law (thereby its German name Landeck), on the strength of the privilege by Casimir, the Prince of Kujawy. Abbots managed to acquire numerous privileges from the kings; in 1851 28 pieces of art were deposited in the Warsaw archive. After the abbey was dissolved in 1798, the property was confiscated by the Prussian government and sold out to private owners. The parish church, originally founded in the times of Mieszko Stary (the Old), was erected again as a brick building by the abbot, priest Konstanty Słowicki, in 1777. Parish Lądek, deanery Słupca, 3065 people.
2) village and manor on the Bawół stream, Słupca district, Grodziec township, Królików parish, distance from Słupca 30 versts. The village has 24 houses, 226 residents; forest settlement 1 house; manor 2 houses, 20 residents. In 1827 14 houses, 157 residents. See Grodziec.

 

Lądek, Landek, see Lendzcyek.

 

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1884, vol. 5, p. 108]

 

This translation, by Wojciech Wagner, is used by permission.


Laski

Laski, a settlement in Swiecie county, on the stream Brzezina, in a sanded, woody area; 630 mórgs of land, 67 buildings, 30 houses, with 132 Catholic inhabitants and 24 Protestant. It is served by the Sliwice parish church and post office and the school in Lazek. [Rev. Fr.]

 

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1884, vol. 5, pg. 85]

 

This translation, by William F. Hoffman, first appeared in the Fall 1999 issue of "Bulletin of the Polish Genealogical Society of America".


Lida

Lida town- (Balinski publication, Polish Station) chief district town (Wilno gubernia); on the Lida River (called the Lidzieja); at 53° 59' 45" North latitude and 26° 4' East longitude [ed: all Slownik (Ferro) longitudes have been converted to the Greenwich zero meridian] some 59 mi from Wilno on the postal highway to Grodno. It has been a Lithuanian settlement from the earliest times, as evidenced by the name ("Lydda"- forest clearing, clearly a Lithuanian word) [ed.
it might also have derived from the Lithuanian term for smelter-- "lyditti" given the bog-iron deposits and ironworking in the Lida plain at Naliboki, Szczuczyn, and Wisznew]. According to the assertion of Strykowski, a castle or stronghold was erected here by Gedminas around 1323. It is possible that the site had been used earlier as a defensive position constructed of wood and earth, to properly defend the frontier between Lithuania and the early (Kievan) Russian state.

When the province was divided among the great princes or dukes according to feudal convention following the death of Gedminas, Lida became the capital town of the Lida principality. It fell first solely under the possession of Olgierd, then to his son Jagiello in 1381, Prince of Vitebsk, Krewie & Lida, and finally to Witold (Vytautas, brother of Olgierd). By 1366 Franciscans from Poland had arrived there proclaiming the Christian faith. The number of missionaries increased to nine in 1378, and they brought with them from Wizny a picture of Our Lady, which became a local favorite. After 1397, monks of the order were settled there through the efforts of Andrew, first bishop of Wilno. A church, restored in 1414, was consecrated in Lida, with the titles of Virgin Mary of the Assumption and the Holy Cross. Around 1460, in place of the Franciscan mission, a parish was created at Lida for which a church was subsequently erected. In 1747 pastor Michael Zienkowicz, bishop of Wilno, transferred it to another location within the confines of the Lida castle-yard. A church (cerkiew) for the profession of the eastern rite faith [ed. Uniate or Orthodox?] was consecrated for Lida in 1533.

On Tuesday June 15, 1387 (St. Victoria's day), Skirgallo, Prince of Troki and Polotsk, swore an act of allegiance to Jagiello in Lida, along with other princes and dukes. In 1392, the neighboring Teutonic Knights (including many English knights) banded together with Witold, who had quarreled with Jagiello. They joined in an expedition to Lida, crossed the frozen marshes, and set fire to the castle-yard. Prince Korybut, in charge of the defense of the castle at the time, did not defend it eagerly in spite of his strong fortified position. He abandoned the stronghold, leaving weapons and war materials to the Germans as booty. In similar fashion, a second expedition by the Teutonic Knights was launched against Lida in the winter of 1394, this time with Counts Leiningen from Germany and Bedford from England. After encountering very strong castle defenses, they burned the town, withdrew suddenly and accomplished little or nothing.

 

Upon becoming the governor of Lithuania (after his reconciliation with Jagiello), Witold again received Lida castle and restored it carefully. Its earlier occupant Olgierd had always considered it a favorite, and it was afterwards given to Wojdyllo, later brother-in law of Jagiello, who created a haven for exiles and soldiers fleeing the infamous Tochtamysz Tatars. The prince of Smolensk, Jerzy Swiatoslawowicz, invaded the environs of Lida on August 5, 1406 with a powerful armed force, undoubtedly in response to pleas of his kinfolk. His army took captives right up to the castle walls; the town panicked and was burnt. But the castle was stormed in vain. The Sheriff, absent at that time, had by chance brought along a detachment of soldiers on his return and repelled the assault.

Lida was honored in the year 1422 by a visit from King Jagiello. In February he sojourned there along with many court retinue on their way to his wedding in Nowogrodek to marry Princess Sophia of Kiev. The papal nuncio to Pope Marcus V, Antony Zeno, also traveled there to investigate witnesses regarding her endowments under the Teutonic Knight's legal system, and to report on these privileges.

In 1434, Swidrigallo, having created a sedition among the Lithuanians, burned down the town, leaving only the church unharmed. The castle, unaffected despite the destruction of everything else, became the dwelling place of Hadzy-Gireja, a Tatar princess. She was an emigrant to the kingdom, remaining there for several years by acquiring a lease of Lida from Casimir, then Great Prince of the Lithuanians up to the year 1443, when the Tatars challenged his authority over them. The local leader rebelled against King Alexander and started a stubborn quarrel in 1505 among the Kristof Illinici and certain Drozdi (ed. local tribes?), whose king, through the precautions of the Glinski family, returned the lease to the distant Illinici. This contributed later to the murder of Zabrzezinski, who had quarreled with the Illinici, and through his warlike preparations brought upon himself the wrath of the all-powerful Glinskis.

In 1506, King Alexander, general commander of the force against the Tatars who were violently attacking the Lithuanians, made for Lida notwithstanding a grievous illness. There he entreated the Glinskis to mobilize the nobility for immediate action. Borne by bearers into Lida castle and still weak from illness, he received his last Communion and dictated his final will and testament. Meanwhile, the nobility gathered their forces there; consequently when the vassals knew that the Tatars were about a league distant from Lida, the eminent king was carried in a litter from the castle to Wilno, where he recovered in the company of Queen Helen, Chancellor Laski and several nobility. He remained there safely out of the enemy's reach for an extended time.

During 1611, the Sejm confirmed the right of the ancient town to sponsor market fairs, and permitted a constitution in 1638. This allowed citizens to assemble inside the old blackened castle, as well as to maintain a vault for keeping a register of Lida citizens land-ownership. Though hardly due to King Jan Casimir, the entire Lida province succumbed at about this time of his reign to a painful natural disaster [ed.- this sentence needs checking; also no specifics like drought or floods]. In 1662, this terrible weather raging on Lida induced the local council to suddenly shift its activities to Myta. During this time, the court remained functioning enacting resolutions to deal with prosecutable crimes committed in the abject province by its enemies; the court used its tribunal decree powers conferred on it. The disaster continued even after the confirmation of the king.

Because of the devastation to which Lida had undergone, the Sejm of 1676 exempted it from standing agreements and other burdens outside of its jurisdiction [ed. such as exemption from army/war taxes?]. But during the repeated Swedish invasions of Charles XII, the town again suffered greatly. The castle remained burnt down from 1710 on and never recovered again. The Sejm therefore in 1717 maintained the former relief, renewing the exemption from defense payments and military settlements. The Sejm constitution of 1776 reckoned Lida among the towns which continued under Magdeburg (Teutonic) Law in 1791, adding it to the list of towns under decline and placed it in the Wilno department for municipal court affairs.

Two spiritual legacies adorned the town in later times-- besides the holy altar [ed. in the old castle?] which was erected before 1644, Adam Narbut, Seneschal of Lida with his wife Elizabeth built a Carmelite nunnery there, while Ignace Scipio, steward of the King, brought in a Piarist mission to Lida, founding a brick college and school, in time appointing a faculty there. The Sejm of 1775 confirmed these legacies. Court activity took place from the castle and acts of the town were preserved there. The castle continued to be used up to the reign of King Stanislaus Augustus despite its burnt state, but after that declined into utter ruin. At present, there are still beautiful ruins in place; the walls rise in dignified fashion around the red square. Vestiges of the tower and excavations evidently remain, although its structure is entirely gone, just like the castle remains in Miednikam and Krewo.

In 1801, Lida was designated a provincial town within Grodno gubernia, and from 1842 in Wilno gubernia. In 1817 Lida had 292 homes, of which four were brick or stone, with 770 inhabitants including 567 Jews. In 1879 there were 3,915 inhabitants, although in 1862 4,077 were counted (2,059 men and 2,028 women); additionally there were 200 nobility, 36 clergy of diverse faiths, 14 trade merchants, 3,336 identified townspeople and craftsmen, and 32 peasants as well as 469 aforementioned absent workers. Population added to the town included 1,479 males and 2,082 females, together totaling 3,561 of both sexes. There were 365 owned homes and all other real estate dwellings.

Given the town's isolated location, trade in Lida has been restricted to necessary things for immediate local consumption. Two merchant guilds and 3 grinder/cutter guilds were first begun here in 1861, although the greater part of their trade was internal. There are 76 booths for other trading in Lida. Two fairs are held during the year here but are of minor significance; markets take place every week offering grains, vegetables, wood and other items for town consumption, drawn almost entirely from the surrounding countryside. There were 189 persons involved in handicrafts within Lida, for the most part Jews. Concerning factories and workshops here, three were tanneries along with two tiny candle-making workshops making them for local consumption (Jewish ritual table candles). These along with revenues from surrounding fairs generated total annual wages of 6,000 rubles.

Town inhabitants have great difficulty in obtaining wages and revenue within available options; in 1861, 146 work or emigration passport certificates were issued in the local customs house. Agriculture and associated activities count for little in the economic sphere, given the small scale of agriculture; consequently few here take it up. Town revenues in 1862 were reckoned at 2,516 rubles (ordinary taxes) and 445 rubles (special tax). Ordinary town expenditures in this time were put at 1,470 rubles for regular expenses, and 490 rubles for onetime costs. The town possesses 1,544 land leases, but also holds tithes to 345 common pastures. After the Piarist settlement was annulled, Lida then had a 5th-class school until 1850. [ed.unclear sentence follows.] They had experienced (in the past?) excellent contracts. Today the town is reviving. At present, with the building of the Wilno-to-Rowny railroad line perhaps it will slowly recover.

The Catholic parish church, named Raising of the Holy Cross, was erected of stone/brick construction in 1770 by Prince Thomas Zienkowicz. There is also a chapel cemetery. The Catholic parish in the Lida deaconate has 9,892 parishioners. There is an affiliate in Krupie, while formerly there was also one in Kiryanow. Chapels are in Czechowca, Perepeczycha, and formerly also in Ostrow. The Lida deaconate has 12 parishes: Lida town, Nowydwor, Zoludek, Lack, Szczuczyn, Bialohrud, Trokiele, Jelna, Zyrmuny, Nieciecz, Rozanka, Hermaniszki (formerly 13: besides those above, also Dziembrow). Faithful within the deaconate total 41,668 parishioners. Church grant acreages in Lida parish include low-lying and stony areas, gravels and sandy soils. Flowing rivers in the church parish lands include the Nieman, Zyzma, Dzitwa, Lidzieja, Krupka and Ostrowla; there is also Lake Scierkowski.

The Lida rural gmina contains 665 homes, 5,625 peasants of both sexes, comprised of six rural districts and 84 individual villages. The rural districts of the gmina are: Jukurcie, Perepieczycha, Kolyszki, Dabrowo, Berdowka, and Kniazikowce.

 

Note: All Slownik longitudes in this article have been converted to modern coordinates which is based on the Greenwich zero meridian. All Polish measurement units (land areas, distances, height above sea level, etc.) were converted to American-English equivalents.  Monetary units, where identified, were left in zlotys/zl. or rubles/rs.

 

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1884, vol. 5, pp. 215-218]

 

This translation, by Mike Gansecki, is used by permission.


Lida powiat

 

In 1866, the second Lida administrative district of Lida province included 4 towns, 5 hamlets, 42 farmsteads, and 161 villages. Streams in the province are the Bachmatka, Molczad, Lebioda, Holdowka, Chmielowszczyzna, Jelnianka, Trycianka, Brzost, Zoladczanka, Korytnianka, Beraxenka, Rudnianka, Szczara, Holub, Lipiczanka, Budziszcza, Lukowica, Swiecica, Turejka, Dzitwa, and the Nieman. The Castle Town of the Lida Sheriff s Domain [ed.- starostwo] was granted by the general Sejm of 1522 at Grodno [ed.- or Horodlo?] to George Illinicz. It consisted of the towns of Lida, Beresteczka and the Belica-Lipniszki estate. Ignace Scipio, Bailiff of Lida, purchased it in 1766, paying the quarterly army tax of 780 zlotys and 120 zlotys for the army wintering tax. Sheriffs of the court from 1500 to 1794 were: Andrew Drozdy, George Illinicz, Jan Abrahamowicz, Peter Bohatko, Alexander Holowczynski, Alexander Naruszewicz, Nicholas Pac, Alexander Piotrowicz, two Franckiewiczes, six Radziwills, two Sapiehas, and two Scipios.

 

Lida province contains 4,935 agricultural tracts (plus lowlands about a quarter in forest), more than 122,000 inhabitants, and sand and gravel allotments. The principal river is the Nieman. Inhabitants are engaged in agriculture, weaving linen, and breeding cattle and other domestic animals. Today there are already more Black Russians than Lithuanians living here.

Within Lida province there are two Catholic deaconates: Lida and Radun. The Lida Russian-Orthodox deaconate contains 12 parishes: Lida, Zblany, Honczary, Holdowo, Dokudowo, Mala Mozejka, Lebioda, Zyzmiany, Bielica, Bobrowicze, Mytnica, and Radziwoniszki, for a total of 16,280 parishioners. Besides these, there is still a single Russian Orthodox deaconate for Szczuczyn within Lida province. Overall, Lida province has 31 Orthodox churches. At this point (1882) the province does not have a single railroad station but it does have 5 postal stations: Lida, Woronow, Ejszyszki, Szczuczyn, and Zyrmuny. With respect to improving conditions immediately from Wilno, the merchant trade needs access in the province (ed -- such as a railroad station!). Before the Polish Partitions, the Lida Marshals of the province were: Kopec, Chalecki, Franckiewicz, Rajecki, Rymwid, Wollowicz, three Alexsandrowiczes, Scipio, Mosiewicz, Narbut, and Jodko; following partitioning: two Narbuts, two Skinderos, Kostrowicki, Moraczewski, Butkiewicz, & Skarbek-Wazynski. Much of the information came the Lida Nobility Journal of 1876.

[ed. - Additional Slownik information on Lida town/province from Volume XVI]:
LIDA- town. Wendelin Szukiewicz: "Archaeological Investigations in Lida and Troki Provinces" (Swiatowit, Vol III, 1901). In the same work: "Stone Kurgans [ed.- prehistoric burial tombs] in Lida Province" (Swiatowit, Vol IV, 1902). Again: "Certain prehistoric relics in Lida Province" (100th Anniversary of Adam Mickiewicz Memorial Series, Warsaw, Vol. II, pp. 214 et. seq.).

 

Note: All Slownik longitudes in this article have been converted to modern coordinates which is based on the Greenwich zero meridian. All Polish measurement units (land areas, distances, height above sea level, etc.) were converted to American-English equivalents.  Monetary units, where identified, were left in zlotys/zl. or rubles/rs.

 

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1884, vol. 5; 1902, vol. 15]

 

This translation, by Mike Gansecki, is used by permission.


Lidzbark

- in the County of Brodnica

 

- Ger. Lautenburg or Luttenberg, Lutenburg. Liczburg. Ludbarz (found in documents listed as such), town and village and a forestry region belonging to the king, county Brodnica on the paved road leading from Brodnica to Dzialdowo, near the East Prussia border on a significant lake Lidzbark and the river Wel, which crosses it and enters river Drweca, besides from the court (sheriffs) ponds, there used to flow here a stream called Struzka entering river Wel. 

 

1) the town, area of 5644 acres, 612 buildings, 235 households and 3734 residents - 1244 Catholics and 1725 Evangelical in Lidzbark There are here Catholic and Protestant parish churches, a 3-grade Catholic school, Lutheran city schools, Post Office, Telegraph station, magistrate, a city council, a district court (Amtsgericht), a customs office, pharmacy, a physicisan, etc. A railroad from Jablonowo to Brodnica, Lidzbark and Dzialdowo is being planned in connection with the Malbork-Mlawa line.

 

According to an unofficial description, from 1868 (Stat.-topogr. Addressbuch van West-Pressen) there were in Lidzbark 2 forges, 2 waterpowered mills, 1 sawmill, 3(?) breweries, 5 leather furriers, 2 wheelwrights, 9 bakers, 2 sweetshops, 1 watchmaker, 19 butchers, 9 leathermakers, 86 (?) shoemakers, 2 ropemakers, 16 taylors, a hatmaker, 8 weavers, 4 bricklayers, 4 carpenters, 4 coopers, 2 woodworkers, 2 printmakers, 1 combers, 1 chimneysweep, 6 chimney builders, 2 glassmakers, 7 smiths, 1 potmaker, 1 nailmaker, 1 sheet metalworker, 2 barbers/surgeons, 1 tobacco factory, 1 cotton factory 2 painters. Yearly markets take place 4 times for cattle, horses and stalls. 

 

From the history of town very scant information remains. As the church records mention, the town with the church was founded about 1301 on the German law. The first known privilege it received only in 1410 under the rule of Master Ulryk van Juningen. That master of the Knights of the Cross also created the donation document of the church here in 1409 (Pawel von Russdorf is in the records). The town Lidzbark had under the Knights of the Cross a fortified castle. The population, both in the town and in the outlying area was from the beginning mostly Polish, as the names of villages in those days testify, though their Polish character the Knights were trying hard to erase. And so, among others, the Knights' twisted name Bladau, Blendorf means today's village of Bladowo, Bulkendorf=Belki, Dwor 1410, Hof=dwor, Gelen=Jelen, Klonau=Klonowo, Leinau=Linowiec(?), Melensdorf=Mlyniki, Renk, Reyneke=Rynek, Selste, Selze=Chelsty, Stibor=Ciborz, Wamperschke=Wapiersk, Weyer.=Wery, etc. See Ketrzynski, Polish population, page 87. In Polish times Lidzbark town consisted with attached area of starostwo [county office] non-city Lidzbark. In 1531 King Zygmunt I, desifing to better the situation of that town, introduced markets and trade fairs here. In 1703 the Swedes razed large part of the town together with the main church, but were next seriously defeated by the Poles. According to the last inspection of the area performed in 1765, the castle didn't exist anymore, and only a manor house stood in Lidzbark by the fiver. In 1807 a large number of Prussian and Russian soldiers were led through the town and stationed here. In 1855 came here the first Lutheran pastor. 

 

Non-city area of Lidzbark, in province Chelmno, land of Michalow, county Brodnica, according to inspection of 1664 included the town and villages Wompiersk, Jeleniec, Jamielnik and farm Podciborski. In 1771 it belonged to Stefan Rumocki and his wife Anna born Plaskowska, who paid from it quarter payments of 1071 Polish zloty and 7 groszy. From 13 Sep. 1772 it was under Prussian rule. Parish Lidzbark, diocese Lidzbark includes 3580 souls. A Church of St. Adalbert (Wojciech) patronate of the government, founded in 1301, date of consecration unknown. There is a hospital for the poor from 6 parishes, brotherhood of szkaplerz since 1647 and of sobriety since 1859. 

 

The parish villages: Lidzbark town, Lidzbark suburb or old town (German Amtsgrund Lautenburg), Belki, Bladowo, Borki, Chelsty, Ciborz, Brynsk, Ciechanowko, Jamielnik, Jelen, Klonowo, Koty, Kurodaj, Milostaj, Nowy Dwor, Nosek, Piaseczno, Podciborz, Polko, Wlewsk, Wapiersk, brickmaking factories: in Wlewsk, Jamielnik, Ciborz and Jelen. Catholic Schools: in Lidzbark (3-grade, 314 children), in Wlewsk (55 children) in Ciborz (60), in Nowy Dwor (71), in Wapiersk (59) and in Jelen (61). 30 Catholic children attend the evang. school in Brynsk. Until recently there was a second church in Lidzbark - the church of the Ascention of the Holy Virgin Mary in the Old town, (Ger. Amtsgrund Lautenburg). At first it was a church with a rectory, with a city cemetery and a hospital and had its own parish priests. During Lutheran reformation it gradually felLidzbark In the beginning of XVII century, it was again lifted off the ground by a good townsman, Wodciech Kotek and was consecrated in 1606 by bishop of Chelmno, Gebicki and joined with the city church as its branch. In the main altar it had a precious picture of Virgin Mary with Jesus by the then famous painter, Borzymowski. The above mentioned Kotek donated to the Church to better its situation two pieces of ground in Jamielnik, Anna Bobrowa gave other two pieces of ground, which were later transfered to the city church. Marcin Pudlo gave 1/2 parcel, etc. In 1647 the "brotherhood of the scapular" was created here. Unfortunately, in the folowing hard times, mainly because of the Swedish wars, it came near a fall for the second time. The second donor was Marcin Chelstowski, undersecretary of Chelmno, who again.lifted the church from the fall in 1712. New organs were bought - probably - by his wife. This church was consecrated by Bishop Feliks Kretkowski in 1725. After the Prussian occupation the Lutherans were waiting to take this church over. In 1800 there was already a decree ready to that effect, however a definitive response of Bishop Rydzynski saved it for a rejoicing district. Great help gave also the then parish priest, Matyszkiewicz, who watched over this church for over 33 years and didn't even leave the town in a dangerous moment so as not to make the annexation easy for those of other faiths. In 1807 he writes to his superiors:

 

"Through Lidzbark were led 1000 POWs, that is Russians, who were herded into the church, because it was in the suburbs. They spent the night there and desecrated the holy house to a great degree. The second time, 500 POWs, mostly Prussians, were led into the church, who broke down the benches, confessionals, altars and even set fire to the church to save themselves, but fortunately, the fire was noticed soon enough."

 

In the following times, the weakly-made church was falling ever more, in 1850 it was taken apart and sold for 200 talars. See lost churches in the Chelmno diocese, page 137. 

 

Besides the above mentioned church, in Lidzbark there were two other churches, originally parish churches, in Wlewsk and Wapiersk. The Lidzbark diocese now quite small for many reasons, include. 8377 souls, 4 parish churches: in Lidzbark, Boleszyn, Mroczno and Radoszki, plus a branch in Kielpin. In the old days it had twice as many churches and the 2 still existing in Lecko and Przelek are in the newly created diocese in Pomezan and 3 mentioned above are gone in Lidzbark, Wapiersk and Wlewsk. There are 14 parish schools in in diocese, 5 ministers. 

 

2) Lidzbark village and mill, 107 acres, 29 buildings, 148 Catholic, 88 Evangelical. 

 

3) Forestry royal region Lidzbark, newly created in 1877. See. Dzialdowka. 

 

Lidzbark na warmii [entry not translated]

 

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1884, vol. 5, pp. 218-220]

 

This translation, by Martin C. Mazurk, is used by permission.


Lisówek

Lisówek 1.) folw., pow. Grójec, gm. Kobylin, par. Grójec, about 5 wiorst from Grójec, on the

 

Molnica river, 290 mórg: arable lands and 262 mórg of gardens, 17 mórg of meadows,  11 mórg of fallow fields, 10 wooden buildings, rotation 9-agricultural cultivation; in 1870 the folwark was separated from Mirowice.

 

2.) L., see Jedlińsko and compare Lisów, pow. radomski.

 

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1884, vol. 5, p. 320]

 

This translation, by Donald Szumowski, is used by permission.


Lubostrón

Minsk gubernia [now in Gomel oblast, Belarus]:

 

Lubostrón, a manorial farm (folwark) in the Mozyr powiat, on the banks of the Słucz, ..., light soil, abundant... A. Jelski.

 

Posen:

 

Lubostrón is a Dominion or large Manorial Farm located in the powiat of Szubin overlooking the Notec, there are 3696 morgs of tillable fields and gardens; 19 homes/farmsteads; in the year 1880 about 330 inhabitants, whereas in the year 1871 there were 352 inhabitants; 12 Protestant, 340 Catholic, of these 133 are illiterate. There is a Post Office and Telegraph at Labiszynie about 4 km distant and a railroad station at Chmiel about 15 km distant. Lubostrón has a beautiful Palace built by the grandparents of the current owner hr. (Countess) Leona Skorzewski ,  according to the plans and drawings of the architect Zawadski.  About the year 1880 Lubostron dropped the reference to Pilatowo and only Count Fredrick Skorzewski, inspiring palace, would be known as Lubostrón. (See Labiszynie for further detail).  Near Luboston, a large pagan tomb was discovered and opened. Inside was a circular covering plate of stone; from this tomb was extracted 17 burial urns.

 

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1884, vol. 5, p.447]

 

This translation, by Jim Piechorowski, is used by permission.


Lwów [now Lviv, Ukraine]

These are the section headings of the Lwów entry in the Slownik.  If you are interested in translating one or more of these sections, please contact us at Volunteers@PolishRoots.org.  Be sure to indicate Lwow Translation in the SUBJECT line.

 

Nazwy, połozenie, granice, rozleglosc i czesci miasta (pp. 496-497) [Names, Location, The City borders and the Area, The Quarters]

Układ pionowy (pp. 497-498) [The Vertical Scheme]

Geologiczne stosunki okolicy miasta Lwowa (pp. 498-502)
[Geological Information on the Lwow Region]

Hydrografia (pp. 502-504) [The Hydrography]

Klimat (p. 504) [The Climate]

Flora i fauna (pp. 504-505) [Flora and Fauna]

Ludnosc (pp. 505-508) [Population]

Przemysl (pp. 508-511) [Industry]

Handel (pp. 511-513) [Business]

Koscioly i klasztory (pp. 513-522) [Churches and Monasteries]

Szkoly (pp. 522-524) [Schools]

Biblioteki (pp. 524-525) [Libraries]

Muzea (p. 525) [Museums]

Archiwa (pp. 525-526) [Archives]

Czasopisma (pp. 526-527) [The Press]

Stosunki sanitarne (p. 527) [Sanitation]

Zarzad miasta (pp. 527-528) [The Municipal Government]

Wladze i urzędy (pp. 528-532) [The City Authorities and Institutions]

Stowarzyszenia (pp. 532-533) [Associations]

Zaklady dla podniesienia kredytu, rolnictwa, handlu i przemyslu (p. 533)
[The Credit, Agriculture, Business and Industry Institutions]

Zaklady dobroczynne (p. 533) [The Philanthropic organizations]

Najważniejsze zdarzenia dziejowe (pp. 533-544) [Important Historical Facts]

Warownie miasta (pp. 544-546) [The City Fortresses]

Jurydyki (p. 546) [The Jurisdiction]

Herb miasta (p. 546) [The City Coat of Arms]

Budynki wazniejsze (pp. 546-547) [Famous Buildings]

Archeologiczne zabytki (pp. 547-548) [Archeological Artifacts and Monuments]

Bibliografia (pp. 548- 551) [Bibliography]

Ziemia lwowska (pp. 551-552) [The Lwow Region]

Starostwo lwowskie (pp. 552-554) [The Lwow Starosts]

 

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1884, vol. 5, pp. 496-554]

 

This translation, by Jaromir Iwanciow, is used by permission.


Łabętnik

Labetnik, [Editor's Note: now spelled Łabędnik], village and manorial farmstead, Augustów powiat, Barglów gmina, Rajgród parish. 17 km. from Augustów, it has 26 houses, 255 inhabitants. In 1827 it was a government owned village and had 22 houses and 131 inhabitants. 

 

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1884, vol. 5, p. 558]

 

This translation, by William F. Hoffman, first appeared in the Winter 1998 issue of "Bulletin of the Polish Genealogical Society of America".


Łączki

[Lena Duprey asked for a translation of the entries for Łączki Jagiellonskie ..., near Krosno. The (modern) map shows these villages, but the Slownik doesn't mention a Łączki Jagiellonskie- that's probably a more modern name. Of the various entries for Łączki, the following is surely the one she wants.]

Łączki, a village in Jaslo powiat, on the right bank of the Wislok,* 246 meters above sea level, occupies a silt covered river basin in a plain enclosed to the west and south by hills reaching a height of 370-377 m. absolute elevation. These hills are covered by forests. To the north and east stretch fertile plains. Łączki has a Roman Catholic parish, a 1-class people's school, and a gmina loan society with capital of 342 zl. in Austrian currency, and is attached to the powiat court and post office in Frysztak, 9 km. away. Of the 426 inhabitants, 33 live permanently on the major estate, 308 are of the Roman Catholic faith, 100 are Greek Catholic, and 18 are Jews. The major estate, owned jointly by several people, has an area of 180 mórgs of farmland, 17 of meadows and gardens, 17 of pastures, and 11 of forests; the minor estate has 284 mórgs of farmland, 25 of meadows, 100 of pastures, and 11 of forests. Łączki used to belong to the diocese of Kraków, but the parish church was in Leki [on modern maps this appears to be the village named Leki Strzyzowskie], and until the partitioning of Galicia the church in Łączki was a branch of that one. But since the branch church was the more spacious and better maintained one, the Austrian government made it the parish church, and the one in Leki the branch. It is made of brick, built in 1750 and consecrated in 1756. The parish belongs to the Diocese of Tarnów, deanery of Frysztak, and includes Leki and its attached branch church, as well as Przybówka, Widacz, Wojszówka [Wojaszówka], Wojkowa [Wojkówka], Wysoka, Rzepnik and Pietrusza Wola, with a total population of 2,569 Roman Catholics and 48 Jews. Łączki borders to the west and south on Wojszówka, to the east on Rzepnik, and to the north on Leki. - Mac.

 

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1884, vol. 5, pp. 629-30]

 

This translation, by William F. Hoffman, first appeared in the Winter 1999 issue of "Bulletin of the Polish Genealogical Society of America".


Łazduny

Łazduny, a small town in Oszmiana county; 3rd police district; 66.3 Miles from Wilno and 41.8 miles from Oszmiana; 456 inhabitants; the property is owned partly by the government treasury and partly owned by Weronika Korwin Milewska. In 1817 the town and estate were the property of Józef Wolodkiewiez, then later of Samuel Laniewski Wolk, from whom it went to Milewska. The town has a branch of the Subotniki parish church, named for Sts. Simon Jude and Anne. It was founded in 1744 and made of wood, and rebuilt in 1853 by Samuel Wolk; the branch has 4,336 souls.

 

Additional Slownik information on Lazduny from Volume XV: 

 

Lazduny- a town in Oszmiana province. Jan Monwid, Voivod of Wilno, received Lazduny as a grant along with other benefits from the great Prince of Lithuania Witold [ed.- around 1400]; for ages afterwards it became the possession of the Radziwill family, who had acquired the mortgage. Among others acquiring the mortgage at the beginning of the 18th Century (up to 1787) were the Dominicans from Porcia, who kept it until later taken over by Bishop Zienkowicz of Wilno. The last possessor of entail, Prince Dominick Radzwill made a present of Lazduny to Josef Wollowicz, from whom Samuel Wolk (-Laniewski) acquired it around 1810. Subsequently it was bought by Oskar Milewski as an expensive dowry for Edmund Korsak, his brother-in-law. Today, it is owned by his son Hippolyte.

 

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1884, vol. 5; 1902, vol. 15]

 

This translation, by William F. Hoffman and Michael Gansecki, first appeared in the May 2000 issue of "Rodziny, Journal of the Polish Genealogical Society of America".


Łęczyca

Łęczyca, village, Piotrków county (powiat), Wadlew community (gmina), Drużbice parish, has 23 houses, 163 residents, 245 morgs of land.

 

Łęczyca, German Lentschitz, village on the Warta river, Poznań county (powiat); 15 houses, 165 residents; 81 Evangelical Protestants, 84 Catholics; 51 illiterates. Post office, railway station in Mosina 8 km away.

 

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1884, vol. 5, p. 652]

 

This translation, by Wojciech Wagner, is used by permission.


Łęki Górne - Łęki Dolne

Łęki Górne and Łęki Dolne, two villages in Pilzno powiat, on the county road from Pilzno to Rygiel. Łęki Dolne is located 4 km. west of the town of Pilzno, Łęki Górne is 4 km. farther west. Both villages are in an area of rolling countryside, covered to the north and south by fir forests, on a small tributary of the left bank of the Wisloka. There is a Roman Catholic parish church in Łęki. The populace of Łęki Dolne consists of 1,538 persons, of whom 21 live on the grounds of the major estate, owned by the Tarnów Savings Bank, and 14 live on the manorial farmstead called "Wygoda." The population of Łęki Górne consists of 1,700 persons, of whom 122 live on the grounds of the major estate, the property of W. Brzozowski. The ecclesiastical szematyzm gives the total population as 3,390 Roman Catholics and 159 Jews. In Łęki Górne there is a church made of larch wood dating from 1312, with a beautiful Byzantine image on the side altar; there was also once a prebenda called St. Wojciech's, funded by Wojciech Romer with income from 4 peasant farms, but it was abolished in 1836. There is also a fund for the needy, established 19 November 1795 by Michal and Katarzyna Letowski, who increased the previous fund of Wojciech Romer from 1638 for the upkeep of 13 paupers. This fund has a capital of 500 zlotys in Austrian currency and a yearly addition of 131 zlotys from the owners of Łęki Dolne. The pastor administers the fund. A national school is located in Łęki Górne.

In Długosz's day (see Dfugosz, Liber beneficiorum, Vol. I, p. 811) Łęki belonged to Zaklika of Miedzygórz, and it had 20 peasant lans.  Siarczyiiski mentions (manuscript in the Ossolineum Library, Vol. I, p. 255) that at the beginning of this century flax cultivation flourished here, and that there were many weaving establishments. At that time Łęki Dolne belonged to the Bobrownicki family, and Łęki Górne to the Lubieniecki family. Emigration to America from Łęki motivated Anczyc to write Emigracya chlopska [Translator's note: "Peasant Emigration'~- apparently referring to a work by the writer Wladyslaw Ludwik Anczyc, 1823-1883].

In the 17th century Aryans of the Lubieniecki family built a Baroque-style meeting-place in Łęki Górne, which was abandoned after the fall of Aryanism [Translator's Note: the Arianie, also called the Bracia Polscy, "Polish Brothers," a radical socio-religious movement in the 17th century, connected with the Socinians, were expelled from Poland in 1658] and was turned into a manor sometime after 1830. It is a two-story tenement with a mezzanine and two decorative side facades reminiscent of the Sukiennice in Kraków. Downstairs and on the second floor are rooms with beautiful arched vaults; in one half of the house there was a chapel. The building stands in a lovely garden with ancient beeches and spruces. Warsaw's Tygodnik illustrowany [Illustrated Weekly] gave a sketch of the manor in 1882.

The major estate in Łęki Górne has 633 morgas of farmland, 74 of meadows and gardens, 115 of pastureland, and 655 of woods; the minor estate has 2,139 morgas of farmland, 288 of meadows and gardens, 405 of pastureland, and 108 of woods. The major estate in Łęki Dolne has 681 morgas of farmland, 72 of meadows and gardens, 38 of pastureland, and 389 of woods; the minor estate has 1,513 morgas of farmland, 234 of meadows and gardens, 180 of pastureland, and 150 of woods.

The parish belongs to the Diocese of Tarnów, deanery of Pilzno, and it has a branch church in Machowa. Łęki borders to the east on Dolczówka, to the west on Szynwald, to the north on Podgórska Wola and Machowa, and to the south on Zwiernik and Zalasowa. 

 

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1884, vol. 5, pp. 663-664]

 

This translation, by William F. Hoffman, first appeared in the Fall 1998 issue of "Bulletin of the Polish Genealogical Society of America".


Łogumowicze

Łogumowicze (Logomowicze or Lugomoviclii)-- a peasant village and estate in the 3rd police district of Oszmiana province, and contains the gmina administrative center. It was the inheritance of the Wolk-Laniewski family, today (1880) that of Korwin-Milewski. The combined gmina of Łogumowicze contain 609 homes, with 5,828 peasant farmers. The administrative village center is in the town of Łogumowicze. The gmina consists of 5 rural districts: 1) Łogumowicze, 2) Lazduny, 3) Gudzieniata, 4) Mikolajow, 5) Chapuny; and 34 individual villages.

 

Additional Slownik information on Łogomowicze from Volume XV: 

 

Logomowicze- a village and treasury estate within Oszmiana province. Logomowicze, then a farmstead, belonged to the boyar Kijana who after receiving Christian baptism, apparently founded a Catholic church there around 1250. He founded a Dominican monastery in nearby Lyubcha as well, endowing Logomowicze to it. It is uncertain when Logomowicze became attached to the Dudy sheriff's domain. In the year 1653, Logomowicze manor and village belonging to this sheriff's domain was referred to as "Lotewski Sheriff's Domain". In 1796, Tsarina Catherine made a present of Logomowicze to the Rachmanow family, who sold it in 1798 to the Korsakows for 20,000 rubles. It was in turn sold in 1800 to Samuel Wolk-Laniewski for 32,000 rubles. For the hand of his granddaughter, Wolk transferred Logomowicze to Milewski.

 

[Ed. - There is also interesting information in footnotes to Pan Tadeusz translated roughly as follows: "Łogumowicze, a village in Oszmiana province. In 1800, Samuel Wolk-Laniewski (died 1851) purchased and made a huge fortune from it, which afterwards became a prospective dowry with a considerable portion going to Korwin-Milewski". Another reference in Pan Tadeusz comments on Gerwaz remembering when Wolk was almost hanged by the partisans for collaborating with the Russians but was saved by his own stupid peasants, noting that: "The occurrence recounted by Gerwaz is authentic, although it occurred during another time. Wolk-Laniewski was widely hated for his oppression of peasants and as a confidante of the Russians; in 1831 a (Polish) rebel detachment arrived at Łogumowicze on a legal (punitive foray) expedition, but Wolk, actually warned in advance by his own peasants, was able to escape."]

 

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1884, vol. 5, p. 681; 1902, vol. 15, p. 269]

 

This translation, by Mike Gansecki, is used by permission.


Łowczówek

1) train station to Kolbuszowa Dolna. 2) village on the left bank of river Bialy, in the valley 218 meters below sea level, surrounded by hills and forests. Close to the village there is the tarnowsko-leluchowska train line with station Łowczówek-Plesna, between Tarnow and Tuchow, 7.5 kilometers from Tarnow; belongs to the Roman-Catholic parish in Plesny and has 277 Roman-Catholic inhabitants, of which 48 lives on territories of larger property of 340 fields, 15 meadows and gardens, 89 pastures and 226 morg of forest; smaller property has 164 fields, 13 meadows and gardens, 58 pastures and 18 morg of forest. Community treasure office has a capital of 176 Austro-Hungarian zloty. This village borders with Lichwin to the South, Buchwald to the West and Plesna to the North.

 

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1884, vol. 5, p. 751]

 

This translation, by Regina Frackowiak, is used by permission.


Łukowo

Belarus:

 

Łukowo, a village in the Orsza powiat (district), Rudnya gmina. 16 houses, 114 inhabitants.

 

Poland:

 

Łukowo-1) A village in Obornicki powiat (district), there is wooden church dedicated to St. Michael the Archangel dating from 15th century (reported in the sources from 1510). The Łukowski family heirs (herb Dołęga) founded the village. In the 17th century the village was inhabited by the Sobocki family. The oldest parish records date from 1743.

 

Łukowo – 2) A village in the Wagrowiec powiat (district). The village is mentioned in documents dating from the year 1222, as having paid the decimal (1/10, dziesiêcina) tribute (fields) to the monastery in Łekno. (source: Wielkie Księstwo Poznańskie h. 590)

Ed: (Księga Wieczysta, is a kind of Domesday Book or Land Register Book - Polish land is divided into parcels-allotments, this register is the official source where you can verify the ownership, exact size, ev. mortgages, servitudes and all other legal facts about the parcel; it's now accessible online).

 

Łukowo – 3)see Złotniki Pałamundzkie

 

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1902, vol. 15, v.2, p.283]

 

This translation, by Jim Piechorowski, is used by permission.

 

  
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