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Słownik Geograficzny Translations

Wenecja

1) Officially known as Venetia, Wenacia; In the year 1390 Venecia, Wanaczia; In the year 1400 Weneczya; In the year 1408 Venecia, the property with the Catholic Church in Szubinski (Znin) powiat, about 4 km to the north of Gasawa; 1 km from the road to Znin on the shores of Lake Weneckie and Skrzynka; There is a Catholic Church (Sw. Nicholas) there with a Post Office at Gasawa, a Protestant Church and the Railroad Station at Znin a distance of 6 km. Located there are the Folwarks: Karolewo and Mosciszewo, 16 homes/farmsteads, 209 inhabitants (164 Catholic and 45 Protestant) comprised of 932 hectares, 512 of tillable fields and gardens, 52 meadow, 57 pasture; 311.75 of Water/Lakes); a mill, reeds, peat and clay; the owner is v. / Von Davier. Wenecja is 82 meters above sea //level and about 24 meters above the Lakes. Wenecja lies along the shore of an isthmus which divides these two large lakes: the banks of lakes Biskupie and Weneckie are low and marshy, in some places, covered with reeds; it is the same for most of the western shore of Lake Skrzynki, creating two inlets/isthmus’s the northern not 200 paces and the southern scarcely 100 paces wide. A third isthmus between lakes Biskupiem and Weneckiem where the River Gasawaka easily flows, is not more than  200 paces wide, where it approaches the shore of the lake. The northern and southern shore of Lake Wenecja comes as close as 100 paces in the straights which separate it from Lake Bialem and the ruins of a castle in days gone by. The Castle of Venetia/Wenecja was located on a third of the isthmus, 800 paces to the west of the eastern edge of the manor’s orchard, pressed against the shore of Lake Skrzynski, about 300 paces to the east of the River Gasawka and 100 paces from Lake Weneckiego, on the right side of the road from Biskupin to Wenecja. This Castle has fallen down over time; and now It is considered a rubble pile; the picture of which is shown by Count Raczynski in his `Memories` ‘the Friend of the Common People’ and ‘the Album’ by N.Orda, it began to be demolished in recent years. The territory of Wenecja includes: the lakes Skrzynka, Weneckie, Mosina and Dominikanskie. The surface elevation varies from 82 to 104 meters above sea level, and as must as 110.9 meters to the north east. The Catholic Church of ‘p.w. Narodz. N. M. Panny’ (the birth of Mary the Mother of God) stands on north east shore of Lake Weneckie, about 500 paces west of the Manor House. The present name presumably evolved in early times sounding like Wanacya (Wanacia). There appears in documents about the year 1390 introduced by, Mikolaj (Nicholas) of Wenecja, the Judge from Kalisz, who is, by Janko from Czarnkowa (in the year 1383) is mentioned in a document from Trzemeszno dating 12th January 1390 as a squire of Chomiaza or a squire of Wenecja. From this we may deduce that Wenecja used to be a part of Chomiazy holdings. The triangular area between the lakes and Notec could have been called the `Chomiaza` and could be the headquarters/seat of one family. As time went by there began to develop three settlements with identical names, less than a mile apart they were distinguished with one new name for all of them. This same Judge of Kalisz is without fail Mikolaj, son of Chwala, why appears on July 8, 1381 in Poznan in the entourage and representative of King Ludwig of Wielkpolski to measure out Justice (Kod. Wielk). It is written in the year 1390 that Mikolaj is from Wenecja, and is now known as Mikolaj Chwalowicz. Wenecja, during the Civil War participated on the side of the Nalecz and took part in the capture of Pyzdry which was taken by the Nalecz and on 18 Jan 1383 the Confederation loyal to Mary, the elder daughter of Ludwig was set. It is said by Janko from Czarnkowa, that on March 10 of that year, Grzymlczycy led a sortie from Nakla that was said to have devastated the six manors of Mikolaj of Chomiaza, Judge of Kalisz around Znin. We know it to be these Manors: Chomiaze, Wenecye, Mosciszewo, Grzmiaca, Mokre and Gasawce the mill on Gasawka ( Pomn. Dziej. Pol., 11, 728) We find a second mention in the Szamotuly supplement to the Trzaska 
yearbook, but one so different from the note of Janko -- who often stayed in Znin, the property of the Archbishop of Gniezno, and must have known personally the lord of nearby Wenecya that we cannot give it credence. This supplement evidently confused persons and occasions, talking about the war of Archbishop Bodzanta [in modern Polish usually spelled Bodzeta with nasal E] with Mikolaj, the lord of Wenecya, chief justice of Great Poland (Ibid., Vol. II, p. 861). Mikolaj was commonly referred to as “The Bloody Devil”; there are varying stories in the “History/Annals” of Długosz of the outstanding personage of Jan Nalecza from Czarnkowa, the chief Justice of Poznan, in particular one story relates their inability to make peace with one another. (History, III, 464). Professor Przyborowski in ‘History and Knowledge of the Bloody Devil’ (Wilenskie collection of letters from the year 1859) corrected misconception about the legend. But even now common people in the vicinity relate incredible stories about the lawless ‘Bloody Devil, Lord of Wenecja’  (ob.E. Calliera Powiat Zninski, 69-79). In the year 1390 there exists in damaged notes / writings of acts of /damage to the lands of Gniezno by Mikolaja the Lord of Wenecja. There was a dispute between Mscigniew, the castellan of Zabszyn and Sedziwoj from Marcinkowo over the movement / transport of goods between these localities Ostrow and Wenecja. (Akta gr. Wielk., II, n. 994) . About June 25, in the year 1392 Judge/Lord Mikolaj wanted to create a town around his manor as he granted an endowment to the local Catholic Church in his town of Wenecja, this included four lans of cultivated fields near Moscizewo, a tithe of every tenth sheaf of cereals to be collected on the hereditary fields at Mokre (located: pow. Mogileński, gmina Dąbrowa), the whole small lake Mosina, two fishermen, who may fish not only with drag-net, but also various small nets on the lake called Skrzynka (meaning "little chest"), also on the lake near the outlet of the Mosina, the meadow at Zimnej Wody (Cold Waters), apart from the meadow a serf at Mosciszewo and eight parcels of garden plots within the town of Wenecja for different tradesmen, who settled there; finally, they are permitted to gather wood, either dry or green anywhere it may be found for the Castle’s purposes. In return for it, the rural parish celebrates two funeral masses weekly. On the 8th Day of May in the year 1395 Archbishop Dobrogost of Znin approved the (churches) charter in writing, besides determining the the income from fishing with small nets on the large Lake Biale, across from the Zamek at Wenecja, and the gathering and husbandry of tree’s in the forest at Ochodze. (Kod. Wielkop., n. 1926 and 1959). The church at Wenecja was supposedly founded by Archbishop Dobrogost. Judge / Lord Mikolaja erected the church in Wenecja, and funded the altar of St. Mikolaj (Editors Note ..3) He endowed the Parish of Sw. Mikolaj with a tithe of the fields of the peasants at Jadowniki, in the area about the Parish at Gora; a tithe of the peasants wages besides a tax of 2 grosz per lan on the harvest of flax. Three masses a week were celebrated for the soul of the founder of the altar. In the year 1419 an agreement between Maciej the burger of Znin with Jacob the Altarya which would pay him yearly at Christmas and on Sw. Wojciech day a sum of 3 grzywny ( an old silver monetary unit, worth several denarii) as a tithe of the oats harvested at Jadowniki. Liber Beneficiorum Laskiego, contains lists for the years 1392 and again validated in 1395, which disclose the levies for the collection of timber and in addition the following levies: The kmiecie / commoners from Wenecja, Biskupin and Godawy paid a Kolende (Christmas gift to the priest) of a grosz per each field, while the Zagrodnicy (landed farmers) and Innkeepers paid a half grosz. The parish priest collects in the village of Suchym Dole near Triagiem and in Konary near Margonin a sheaf thithe from the peasants fields, which they bring in on their own carts, the peasants also pays a 2 grosz thithe on each flax field. The Parish at Wenecja is made up of: Biskupin, Godawy, Mosciszewo, and Wenecja;  later came Annowo, Folusz, Karolewo, Nowy Folwark, Ostrowce, Pniewy, Rozalinowo and Wiktorowo. In the year 1759 Wojciech Miaskowski, the district governor of Znin, lord of an estate in Wenecja, erected a new  wooden church upon the reccomendation and orders of Archbishop Lubienski,  which was consecrated the 18th day of October 1765 by ks. Krzysztof Dobinski, Sufragan / Bishop of  Gniezno. (Editors Note ..4 )  After 100 years the church in Wenecja fell into ruin. And indeed the local government together with the parishioners in the years 1869 to 1872 erected a new church made of brick, with a steeple, in the Gothic style, placed picturesquely between the lakes on the peninsula.   The parish (dek. / deanery of Znin) in the year 1888, accounted for 767 souls; there is a parish school; in Biskupin, Godawy and Ostrowce. After the death of Judge / Lord Mikolaj, Wenecja came into the hands of Mikolaj Pomian from Warzymowa, who in the year 1420 sold it to Archbishop Trabie in exchange for Biskupin near Radziejowo, in Kujawa. Mikolaj from Warzymowa is the Castellan of Kruszwicki in the year 1433; he died after the year 1441, in the Castle at Bresko-Kujawski. Wenecja in the year 1577 was comprised of 2 traces Brzesc of land, field serfs and 1 farm or small farmsteads with courtyard and outbulidings; after two years the fields of the peasants lay empty, about the year 1620 they dissappear completely; in the year 1579 2 zagroda (small farmsteads)  and 3 komornik, (tenant farmers ) lived there. About the year 1620 there are 3 zagroda (small farmsteads). After the annexation by the Prussian authorities the Archbishop sold the estate. Wenecja, Karolewo and Mosciszewo were privately purchased. Finally, the property came into the hands of the Ilowieccy family, who sold it to the Germans.

 

2) Wenecja, known as Venetia a settlement in powiat of Odolanowski (ostrow) near the town of Ostrow ( Catholic parish, Post Office and Railroad Station). There are 4 houses/farmsteads, 68 inhabitiants; it is in the district / county of Krepa. The village and surrounding are of 103 hectares is the property of Natalia Siedel.

 

3) Wenecja, also known as Nowa Wenecja. In bygone days called Kobylin, a part of the adminstrative district of Krotoszynskipowiat.

 

Aug-Dec 2005, Families: Piechorowski, Piechurowski

 

EDITORS NOTES

1) This battle featured the first use of a cannon in war, in Poland and we are talking about Ludwig of Hungary whose picture is featured at http://www.econ.ucdavis.edu/graduate/rsszulga/1370-1434.htm

3) Altaries (pol. altaria/altarie). These institutions were thought of as simple benefices without duty of granting priestly functions. As each benefice altaries had owned founders: gentry, townsmens, companies ... etc. Altarzysta (altairman?). a locally important title of honor bestowed by the church. Popularly the term benefice is often understood to denote either certain property destined for the support of ministers of religion, or a spiritual office or function, such as the care of souls, but in the strict sense it signifies a right, i. e. the right given permanently by the Church to a cleric or noble to receive ecclesiastical revenues on account of the performance of some spiritual service.

4) Suffragan: abbr. Suff. or Suffr.

1. A bishop elected or appointed as an assistant to the bishop or ordinary of a diocese, having administrative and episcopal responsibilities but no jurisdictional functions. 2. A bishop regarded in position as subordinate to an archbishop or a metropolitan.

 

Source: Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1893, vol. 13, p.209-211]

 

This translation, by Jim Piechorowski, is used by permission.

  
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