Select the search type
  • Site
  • Web
Search
Slownik Geograficzny Translations

Człuchowo

Człuchowo Czlochow, Szlochow in German Schochau, in old documents Slochow, a district town in West Prussia. Located between two lakes and on the Berlin-Krolewiec road. It now also has a railway, the Chojnicko-Wegorzyn line. About 15 km. from Chojnic, there is the new Pilsko-Tczew line, the shortest between Berlin and Krolewiec. Then there is road between Bialobor (Baldenberg) and Nakla, which passes through Czluchowo. The town covers an area of 6572 sq.m. has 2816 inhabitants, 1013 Catholics and 1312 Protestants. The latter are increasing in number since the opening of the railways. From time immemorial, mainly Germans have lived here, however, Czluchow’s beginnings go back to the very old Slav/Pomeranian settlements. In fact, it is believed to have existed during the reign of the Pomeranian princes, around 1187 to 1207. An old pagan castle (Burgwall) existed on the highest hill near the town. From the end of the XIII century, Czluchowo was owned by the Ponic family and, in 1312, the last Slav owner, Count Mikolaj Ponic, sold the town and surrounding land to the Crusaders who built a new castle and settled their Teutonic knights therein. The castle was situated on a peninsula thrusting into the lake. It was surrounded by a double wall and moat and separated from the town by a narrow strip of land. The Crusaders themselves admitted it was the largest and best-fortified castle after the Malborg one. Normally, 30 armed knights, excluding the mercenaries, were to be found here. In 1388, a 15 year agreement was made between the Grand Master Konrad Czoluer von Rotenstein and a certain Wedel from Nowa Marchia whereby the latter would supply Czlochow with 100 armed men, 400 horses, 100 riflemen, cavalry and lansequents. In return he would receive 1800 grzywien (monetary unit).In the war with Wladyslaw Jagiello in 1409, the Commander of Czluchowo, Gamrath von Pinzenau together with the Tuchol Commander invaded that part of Poland which lies south of Czluchowo and destroyed the larger towns of Sepolno and Kamien. A year later, in 1410 the new Czluchowo Commander Arnold von Baden was killed in the battle of Tannenberg. The town and castle, however, did not surrender to the Poles, as did most Prussian towns even though King Kazimierz encouraged them to do so in his letter. In 1414, a large army headed by Wladyslaw Jagiello arrived in Czluchowo from Lithuania but were unsuccessful in beleaguering the castle. From here they moved on to the Kujawy. Czluchowo was one of the first to join the known Jaszczar pact against the Crusaders. In 1454, pro-Polish citizens of Danzig sent a group under the command of their town councillors, Jan Pekaw and Kurt von Dalen. The last Czluchowo Commander, Jan Rabe, was forced to move to Chojnice, which also belonged to the Czluchow community. In 1456, the Crusaders attacked Czluchowo and in an act of revenge burned the town. However, they did not manage to capture the castle due to reinforcements from Danzig. In 1463, Czluchowo was administered by Wladyslaw, the Nakielski castellan. In his absence, Jerzy, crest Topor, took over. He had thoughts of giving the castle to the Crusaders and so he came to an arrangement with some soldiers he trusted sending the rest away from the castle. As he was about to commit this treachery his own people caught and imprisoned him. And so the castle remained in Polish hands. It was not until 1466, when a certain Marcin Zitzwitz and his scheming plan succeeded in giving the castle over to the Crusaders. When King Kazimierz, who was in Bydgoszcz at the time, heard of this he immediately arrived with his army and recouped the castle in seven days. As far as is known, there were 29 Commanders in Czluchow: Ludwik von Lieberzelle before 1323,Dytryk von Lichtenhain, also a lay commander 1323-1326, Guenther von Snoze 1332-1334, Jan von Barkenfeld 1336-1338, Henryk Ernst till 1344, Jan von Barkenfeld 1346-1350, Ludolf von Hake 1350-1354, Henryk von Thaba 1355-1370, Henryk von Grobitz 1372-1377, Konrad von Wallenrod 1377-1382, Fryderyk Kuehl von Scharfenstein 1382-1383, Jan von Schoenfeld 1383-1392, Wilhelm Folkolt 1392-1402, Gamrat von Pinzenau 1402-1410, Arnold von Baden 1410 killed at Tannenberg on 15 July, Jost von Hohenkirchen 1410-1411, Jan von Speet 1411-1413, Wilhelm von Steinheim 1413-1415, Jan von Hohenkirchen 1415-1420, Leopold von Reitenbach 1420-1422, Jan von Pommersheim 1425-1431, Mikolaj von Nikoritz 1431-1433, Bernard von Schoenburg 1433-1435, Henryk von Rabenstein 1435-1437, Gotfryd von Geilenkirche 1437-1438, Wilryk von Greifenstein 1438-140, Jan von Stockheim 1441-1444, Herman Hug von Heiligenberge 1445-1446 and Jan Rabe 1450-1454. As soon as the Crusaders had been forced out, the Poles placed starosts in the Czluchowo castle. The first, even before the Torun Peace Treaty, was Mikolaj Szarlej, the Inowroclaw voivode. In 1454, during the ill-starred battle of Chojnice he was captured and was held captive for some time in Malborg; then came Wladyslaw, the Nakielski castellan, mentioned in 1463; in 1466 Jerzy Dabrowski, the Czluchowo starosta, Niesiecki mentions his capture by the Crusaders; in 1510 Andrzej Gorski, Posen Chamberlain; in 1520 Rafal Leszczynski, Ledz castellan who later became the bishop of Przemysl and Płock. In 1530, Stanislaw Koscielacki, the Posen voivode and Czluchowo starosta died; Jan Koscielecki, the Lecz, Bydgoszcz and Tuchol voivode and Czluchowo starosta died in 1545; Jan Latalski; THE Posen voivode died in 1557; Achacy Czema, Malborg voivode and former Chamberlain of Pomerania died in 1565; Stanislaw Latalski, Inowroclaw and Czluchow starosta, lived around 1570. Both Latalskis were advocates of the new Lutheran faith and did a lot in the area to promote the faith. After the death of Stanislaw Latalski in 1603, Bartlokiej Tylicki, an avid Catholic and brother of Bishop Tylicki, became the Czluchowo starosta and reinstated the Catholic faith. From then on, the starostas were Catholics. They included: Ludwik Wejher, Chelm chamberlain, died in 1617 two years after his predecessor Bartlomiej Tylicki; Jan Wejher, Chelmin voivode died in 1626; Melchior Wejher, also Chelm voivode died in 1643; Jakob Wjher Malborg voivode, founder of the town of Wejherowo and benefactor of various churches and monasteries in Pomerania died in 1657; after his death, his second wife, Princess Joanna Radziwill, was granted one fourth of the income from the Czluchowo district till her death. Apparently, she later married Bogusz Leszczynski, Crown Chamberlain and Czluchowo starosta who died in 1660; Michal Kazimierz Radziwill, the Commander-in-Chief died in 1680, Karol Stanislaw Radziwill, died in 1711; according to Goedke’s chronicle, Anna Radziwill was the owner of the Czluchowo district in 1721 and packed all the paperwork into 4 large containers and had them taken to her residence in Biala in Lithuania. The last known Czluchowo starosta was Michal Kazimierz Radziwill, Vilno voivode and Lithuanian hetman, died in 1762.

During Polish rule, regional councils and court meetings were held in Czluchowo.

The more important historical events affecting the town and castle are: in 1520, the German army, under Schoenberg, arrived to support Albert, Prussian Prince, in his attempt to regain Pomerania but on seeing the fortified castle decided against an invasion; in 1563, Eryk, the daring Braunschweig prince, arrived in the town from Oliwa but also did not manage to seize the castle. In 1627, the Swedes devastated the area and seized the towns of Frydland and Czarne (Hamersztyn). Czluchowo was burnt down on 18 April; in 1656, the Swedish leader, Aleksander Weissenstein, having previously seized Tuchole, Frydland and Chojnice, he now surrounded Czluchowo castle and would, normally, have had difficulty in seizing it as it was well stocked in ammunition, food and men(200) but the winter was a severe one and the water in the moat had frozen over. By crossing the ice, the soldiers were able to reach the castle walls and take the inhabitants prisoner. They also managed to round up enough locals for a dragoon, in Chojnice. The following year and only for a short time, they had to surrender the castle to the Poles, under the leadership of Kazubski. The same year, the King himself, Karol Gustaw, took Chojnice from the Poles and continued on to Czluchowo. Two years later, the King’s brother, Adolf Jan, plundered Chojnice and went on to Czarny (Hamersztyn) and Frydland and then besieged Czluchowo. Sources from the beginning of the XVIII century inform of four more fires, which gutted Czluchowo: 13 June 1729; 17 October 1735, 1786 and 1793. Czluchowo Castle, built in the first part of the XIV century by the Crusaders, remained in pretty good shape all during the Polish reign; around mid XVII century, Jakob Wejher, the Czluchowo starosta, put much work into it and, last century, the Radziwill family lived in it. The beautiful castle towers, of which there were 5, 4 smaller and 1 big one, accentuated the grandeur of the castle and many outbuildings. The large tower housed the old Crusaders’ Chapel of Our Lady. It was as large as a normal church with a tiled floor, the normal high ceiling, 3 altars, and the walls were adorned with the Crusaders’ stalls. During the Swedish occupation from 1656 to 1660, pastor Schmidt from Baerenwalde held Lutheran services and during Polish occupancy Masses were held twice a week. After the Prussian occupancy in 1772, the ownerless castle fell into disrepair and ended up a ruin after the fires of 1786 and 1793. During this period, people came and dismantled the castle using the bricks to build new homes in the town. All that remains are a few reminders of the fortification walls, the moat foundations, walls and the well-preserved magnificent tower, which reigns over the area. This 180 foot tall tower is of an octagonal shape, has 14 foot thick walls, is roofless and not vaulted. During wartime, orders and signs to the neighbouring Chojnice, Czarny (Hamersztyn, Frydland and Tuchol etc. were given from the 16 square apertures at the top of the building. The tower was also used by the Lutherans, who built a new church nearby in 1826 and 27. Until then they had no church. It is said that a corridor under the lake leads from the castle to the nearby forest. The Catholic Church, founded in 1209 by the Pomeranian princes, is located in the town. It belonged to dissenters from the mid XVI century until 1609 when it was returned to the Catholics. Around the middle of the XVII century, Jakob Wejher, Czluchowo and Malborg county starosta rebuilt the dilapidated church as it stands today. His eminent wife, Anna Szafgoczowa, provided the furniture and furnishings and the founder had a small chapel built behind the sacristy, where he partook in the Mass. In 1765, there was a monument in the church of Michal Ludwik Deminski who, in 1680, died young at the hands of an unworthy assailant. Before the Reformation, Czluchowo still had the St. Katarzyna provostry, which was connected to the hospital and cemetery and in 1378, Konrad, the Chojnice priest, founded a separate presbytery next to it. Later it disappeared. In 1867, the Catholic parish in Czluchow had almost 3430 German parishioners alone and apart from Czluchowo included the following villages: Buschwinkel, Clausfelde, Friedrichshof, Gruenhof, Jeczonki, Kaldowo, Lindenberg, Mekowy, Mauersin, Platendienst, Stolzenfelde and Dabrowa: and the following seven branches: Barkenfelde, Bischofswalde, Debnica, Lichtenhagen, Moszyn, Rychnowy and Christefelde where, for the past few years, there has been a separate vicary with its own priest. There is also a Protestant parish in Czluchowo. The first pastor did not arrive until 1826, the same year the church was built. The Jews, 500 in number, have their own synagogue. The public school in Czluchowo is composed of two higher classes, separating confessions and sexes. The three lower classes run simultaneously. The Catholics have two of their own teachers and in 1867, there were 164 Catholic children. The Czluchowo County has Catholic schools in Barkenfelde, Christfelde, Lichtenhagen and Debnica and Protestant ones in Bischofswalde (4 Catholic children), Kaldow (37 Catholic children), Moszyn (37 Catholic children), Rychnow (43 Catholic children) and in Clausfelde (3 Catholic children). Czluchowo is the headquarters of the local and regional authorities including the Czluchowo Landrat, horse doctor, county physician, court, previously county now regional (Amtsgericht) and Lindenberg, the forest inspectorate finance office. An infantry company is stationed in the town. In 1868, the population numbered 572. There is a railway station, post office and a telegraph office, which sent out 721 telegrams in 1866 (before the arrival of the railway). Only Germans and Jews live here and are mainly involved in trading and farming. Each year, 4 fairs with horses, cattle and stands take place.

Source: Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1880, vol. 1, pp.862-864]

This translation, by Jola Jurasinska, is used by permission.


Człuchowo powiat

Człuchowo County to the north and west it borders with Pomerania, to the south with Zlotow County and to the east with the Chojnice County. It measures 9 miles from both east to west and north to south taking on the shape of an irregular square, at the south east end lies the Prussian town of Frydland, in the south west Lendyczek and in the north west Bialobor (Baldenburg); the north east part is near the Koscierski County. In 1867, Czluchowo county had a population of 57905 (in 1875 62000) made up of Catholics 23243, Protestants 32853, Jews 1673, males 28870 and females 29035. The people are predominantly German and have been for a long time, as is neighbouring Pomerania. The north east edge has Polish only villages, which belong to the two parishes, Borzyszkow and Konarzyn. Prussian statistics mention 71 Polish families but this figure is a deflated one as Poles, not too many, also live in other neighbouring parishes. The county covers an area of 38780 sq. miles, which means 1485 heads per sq. mile. This makes Czluchowo the least populated county in the Kwidzinski region. Forests cover most of the area. Pine tress prevail in the northern sandy soils of the Kaszuby forests, which are an extension of the Tucholski forests; in the south, where the soils are more fertile, one finds oaks, beaches, birches and on the wetter soils, alders. Pure beech forests can be found in the Lindenberg forest inspectorate (Lipia Gora), from Czluchowo to Lendyczek. The royal forests are divided into three regions: Zanderbrueck is subdivided into 6 areas and Lindenberg into 10 (their names German. The state forests belong to: Czluchowo 1 (Braunhirsch), Czarny Hamersztyn (Hardelbruch) 1 and Frydland (Rehwinkel) 1. Two of the private forests cover extensive areas including Czarne (Hamersztyn) manor with 4 sub areas: Adelshaid, Hansfeldsrueck, Jaegersdorf and Charlottenthal and Breitenfelde manor with Remme. Wood distilling is carried out in many parts of these forests. Prussian army maps show 17 distilleries situated at: Wierzchocin, Biududz, Kepin, Zielona, Dziegl, Janki, Rudnik, Stara Brda, by the Przechylewski mill, Polenica, by the Regnice mill, by Patokol, by Eisenhammer, Wehnersdorf, Lustingshof, Dickhofen and Remmen. Near Ferstnow on the Krepski Lake, chemical solutions are produced. Czluchowo County has 2000 morgs of water surface. The more important rivers are the Gwda and Brda with their tributaries. The Brda (Brahe) arises in a number of lakes in the borderlands of the Pomeranian province between Starzen and Pietrzykowy.

It flows through the middle of the county, firstly, in a southerly direction driving a flour and saw mill in Nowa Brda. The river Modra (Moder) is a left tributary entering near Fortbrueck and another is the Humer(called after the lobsters in it, enters the Szczytno Lake (Ziethen See) and on re-exiting flows east, by Szczytno accepting the left tributary, the Sempolno (Sampohl) near the town of the same name. After reaching Ciecholewy it enters the Charzykowy Lake (Mueskendorf See) from where it continues through Chojnice County. The river Chocin (Chotzen) also springs in the northern part of the county near Wierzchocin (Oberchotzen) enters the Karsin Lake as does the Brda. The Klonicznica comes from the Studzienica Lake in Pomerania; it flows alongside the border between the counties of Czluchowo and Chojnice and enters the Wielki Lake as does the Dybrzyca (Sbritze). The Dybrzyca begins in the Chojnice County and also enters the Wielki Lake and on joining with the Klonicznica flows through the Glisno Lake southerly alongside the Czluchowo and Chojnice counties entering the Karchin Lake where it is joined by the Brda. The Gwda (Kueddow) flows in a southerly direction from Pomerania having the Czarna as its left tributary (Zahne) and makes up the west border of Czluchowo County with Pomerania, up to the town of Lendyczek. The longish river Czarna begins beyond Bialobor (Baldenburg) and it flows in a southerly direction through the eponymous town (Hamerstein) and enters the Gwda. The Biala (Ball) emerges from the Bielczynski Lake (Belzig See) near Bialobor, flows south alongside the Czarna Lake, which it later enters. The Dobrynka flows alongside the border between the Czluchowo and Zlotowski counties into the Gwda near Lendyczek. The Strzeczona(Stretzin) flows from the Czluchowo Lake into the Gwda. The larger lakes with fish are mainly to be found in the northern part of the county. The largest is the Szczytno Lake (Ziethen), the southern part being known as the Krepsk Lake (Kramsker See). It is 2 miles long and is located in the middle of the county; the Brda flows into it and on re-emerging turns eastwards towards the Charzykowa Lake; the road from Czluchowo to Bialobor passes over the dyke between the Szczytno and Krepski Lakes. The Bielczynski Lake (Belzig See) lies in the north west of the county and is over a mile long. The town of Baldenburg lies on the lake in the north. The river Biala flows out of the southern part of the lake, which goes to show that the German Balden ought to be called Bialobor. To the north of Bialobor there are the Lebsk (Labes See?) and Cieczecin (Tessentin and in old documents Ceczeutzin) lakes. The latter enters Pomerania. Lake Kwasne (Qesno?), Lake Male, Lake Wielkie, in the north near Pomerania are joined by a small stream and together measure 1.5 miles. Nearby is Lake Lakie (Lauken) by the village of the same name. Lake Lepczyn is situated in a forest near the village of Lepczyn and between the lakes Szczytno and Glisno. It is furthermost to the north and encroaches on Pomerania. It is narrow and approximately 2 miles long. Right next to it, to the east, is Lake Borzyszkow by the village of the same name. Lake Glisno adjoins Lake Wielkie (Grosser See) and lies on the border between the counties Czluchowo and Chojnic. Here the river Klonicznica enters it and crosses the river Dybrzyca, a tributary of the Brda. Lake Wytoczno, also in the Czluchowo and Chojnic counties is small and the river Dybrzyca flows through it. Lake Kielskie, between the counties of Czluchowo and Bytow is situated near Lubon. The river Klonicznica flows from the north in a southerly direction. The rivers Chocin and Dybrzyc fall into Lake Karsin on the border of the Czluchowo and Chojnic counties and emerge in the Chojnic county as the river Brda. Only the west border of the several mile long Lake Lukamie (Loeckman See) and Lake Charzykow (Mueskendorfer) belong to Czluchow County. The two lakes near Czluchow together measure around 1 mile. The river Strzeczona emerges from the more southerly one. Lake Darznien by the village (Darsen) of the same name is on the Pomeranian border. Lake Wierzchow, by village Wierzchow (Firchau) is about 0.5 miles long and almost the only one in the southern part of the county. In the XVII century, the lake by Sepol used to be called Rybno and the one by Konarzyny, Piaseczno.

There are 331 villages with 46500 dwellers living on the arable part of the land; 5 towns: Czluchowo, Frydland, Bialobor, Czarne (Hamersztyn) and Lendyczek with 11500 inhabitants. Even in the towns, the main occupation of the people of Czluchowo County is farming. According to the official statistics in 1868, the county had 225 public buildings including 61 churches, 87 schools, 24 hospitals, 30 secular, 22 village administration,1 army,15060 private buildings used for various businesses (8705) e.g. mills, warehouses 267, stables and 6088 homes. There were 19000 heads of cattle, 131000 sheep, including 61000 merinos, 8000 horses, 73000 pigs, 800 goats and 3000 beehives. Most villages are peasant communities and 110 are knights’ estates and manors.>

In recent times, attempts have been made to improve the fertility of the land. This is being done not only privately but officially acknowledged associations have also been formed. 22000 thalers were spent on fertilising around 2000 morgs near Przechylew (Prechlau) in 1854, the same year the union statute was ratified by the government. From 1857 to 1859, 1450 morgs between Ekfir and Pienieznica (Penkuhl, previously infertile, were turned into arable land at a cost of 640 thalers. The statute was ratified by the government in 1858. A union,whose statute was ratified in 1856, was formed in the village of Koczal (Floetenstein) and between 1855 and 1859 they turned 678 morgs of useless land into arable for around 9000 thalers. By implementing irrigation methods, the village of Lakie (Lanken) also turned 38 morgs of barren land into a fertile area. The cost was 440 thalers and the statute was ratified in 1856. Industry is underdeveloped in Czluchowo County; factories run by steam are almost unheard of and the flour and saw mills on the banks of the many streams are run by water. According to the new army map of the Prussian headquarters the following villages have water mills: Grabowo, Darzno, Lakie (Lanken), Pflaster Muehle, See Muehle, Brzezno, Przadzona, Borowy mlyn, (Heide Muehle), Chocin mlyn (Chotzen Muehle), Sepolno, Dabrowa, Parszczenica, Zielona (Gruenchotzen), Czarne (Hamersztyn),Rzeczeca, Sztegrowa (Stegers), Pokrzywnica (Kopriwe), Elzanowo, Dabkowy mlyn (Damker Muehle), Szczytno (Ziethen), Roegnitzer Muehle, Polenica, Pietrzykowy (Peterkau), Klonicznica, Eggebrecht, Breitenfeld, Baerenwald, Schoenwerder, Pr.Frydland, Wierzchowo(Firchau), Bruch-Muehle, Debnica, Christfelde, Czluchowo, Szylbark, Barkenfelde, Peterswalde, Giemly, Hammer-Muehle, Pawlowki (Kleine Pagelkau), Przechylewo(Prechlau), Prochowy mlyn (Pulver Muehle), Rosenfelde, Strzeczona,(Stretzin), Bialobor,(Walk-Muehle), Kupfer-Muehle, Zimmer-Muehle, Stara Brda, Lendyczek, Bielsk and Nowa Brda. Glass articles are fairly well known in this county and glass works can be found in the following: Konarzyny, Nowa Karczma, (Neukrug), Ottilienhuette, Georgenhuette, Eisenbrueck, Borowy mlyn,(Heide-Muehle) and Baerwalde.

The many Protestants and their churches belong to the Chojnice commissariat and the Catholics to the Czluchowo deanery, which comprises 10 parishes and 22 branches. The Polish parishes are: Borzyszkow and branches Brzezno and Konarzyny; the remainder are German: Ekfir, branches Bialobor and Pienieznica (Penkuhl), Koczala (Floetenstein), br. Starzno; Ferstnowo, br. Rzeczeca (Sztegrowy) and Krepsk (Kramsk), Frydland, br. Bucholz, Strzeczona (Stretzin), Sztynborno, (Steinborn),Wierzchowo (Firchau) and Jeczonki (Jensnick, Czarne (Hamersztyn), br. Hansfeld, Heinrichswalde, br. Peterswalde, Przechylewo (Prechlau), br. Kiolpin (Woltersdorf) and Polenila, Czluchowo, br. Barkenfelde, Biskupnica (Bischofswalde), Christfelde, Debnica (Damnitz), Lichtenhagen, Moszyna and Rychnowy.

The Czluchow deanery (28,000 souls), together with the Kaminsk archdeaconate, used to belong to the Gniezno archdiocese and since 1821 belong to the Chelm archdiocese.

There is an abundance of Catholic and Lutheran elementary schools scattered throughout the county and a Protestant Teacher’s College in Frydland. The army presence is not apparent as only two cavalry regiments are stationed in the county; one in Czluchowo and one in Bialobor. The following roads traverse the county: 1) Lendyczek through Czluchowo to Chojnice (the oldest Berlin-Krolewiec route), 2)Czluchowo to Bialobor, 3)Czluchowo through Zamarte (Jakobsdorf) to Kamien, Sepol and Nakla, 4)Lobzenica through Frydland to Czarne (Hamersztyn), 5) Czarne through Rzeczece (Stegers) and Przechylowo to the Bytowski road and 6) Chojnice to Bytow. The only two rail roads in the county are relatively new and are: 1) Pilsk-Tczew, the shortest between Berlin and Krolewiec with a station in Wierzchowie (Firchan) and 2) Chojnice–Wegorzyn, to Szczecin with stations in Czluchowo and Czarne (Hamerstein), Peterswalde, Komarzyny, Pr. Frydland, Barkenfelde, Bialobor (Baldenburg), Zielona, (Gruenchotzen), Koczala, (Floetenstein), Lipienice, Lendyczek, (Landek), Rzeczeca (Stegers), Przechylewo (Prechlau) and Wierzchowo (Firchau).

There are telegraph offices in Czluchowo, Czarne and Wierzchow (Firchau). Members to both the German Reich and Prussian government are elected by both counties, Czluchowo and Chojnice in Chojnice. The predominantly Protestant German community does not treat the Polish people well even although a Pole wins if the German Catholics vote for him.

Source: Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1880, vol. 1, pp.864-867]

This translation, by Jola Jurasinska, is used by Permission.

  
Copyright 2008-2016 Version 7.04.01 by PolishRoots   |  Privacy Statement  |  Terms Of Use